North Korea

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Flag of North Korea
Flag of North Korea- Kwoci Peyhan(北韓國旗)

North Korea(北韓)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Gaga kska Yacow ka Korea, north, 40 00 N, 127 00 E ka gaga na nniqan.

Kana ka knlbangan na o 120,538 sq km(hangan na o Tg99)(knlbanga dxgal o 120,408 sq km, knlbangan qsiya o 130 sq km).

File:Emblem of North Korea.svg-Kwohwey.(國徽)

Kana ka sejiqun o niqan 25,115,311 hiyi.

Gaga Pyongyang ka pusu alang paru, jiyax 15 idas 8 ka jiyax skrayan klwaan.

Manu ka dxgal Korea, north ga wada sugan 21.80% ka dxgal qpahan, 46% ka dxgal bbuyu, rahuq dxgal do niqan 32.20% na.

Bukung klwaan ta sayang o kiya ka Kim Jong-un, pnaah hngkawas2016 idas 5 jiyax 9pnrajing kmlawa klwaan.

File:LocationNorthKorea.svg-Ida nkiya nniqan lnglingay.(自然地理位置)

cinkhulan sa knita’ sa brbiru’

Peyhan(北韓)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Coseyng mincu cuyi jnmin konghe kwo (Kari Hnnkoku:조선민주주의인민공화국/Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk ?), slxan bay tmhangan ka Coseyng (조선), Taiwan, Tahan Minkwo mi Syangkang pa ngalan dha Peyhan mnchaya tmhangan, kiya ka wa mniq tuhranan hidaw Asia Coseyng pantaw tudmka daya na qnlhangan sehuy cuyi, pnhiyu kngkawas 1948 idas 9 diyax 9. Balay bay qlhangan dha tndxral pa ya bay 12 knbkiyan pinghwangkongri (ya bay knkanaknlbangan 55% Coseyng pantaw), hwating sotu mi knbeyhing bay alang mkbrnux ka Pingjang. Qnlhangan hiyi mi Tahan Minkwo pa dmuwi 38 seyng (uxay nniqan cyunscyu ddha Han) ptuayus. Tnuayus tudaya ka Yaryucyang, Tomancyang (Tumencyang) ka ayus, mslutuc Cyokoku mi Orosiya.

Hangan qnlhangan(國名)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Hangan kana hanji qnlhangan niyi ka “Coseyng mincu cuyi jnmin konghekwo”, slxan bay tmhangan ka Coseyng. Qnlhangan Coseyng mniq kcka qnlhangan dha pa dmuwi slxan hangan “Coseyng”, “Konghekwo” uxay daw “Tudaya dmka konghekwo”.

Cyoka jnmin konghekwo u mniq kngkawas 1992 msupu Hangkoku cyeyncyaw brah cida han pa, ida dha ngalan murux mndungu bay seyhu ka Coseyng mincu cuyi jnmin konghekwo, ini sruwa Tahan minkwo cngcweyn, spuda nniqan lnlingay pa dmuwi 38 seyng tudaya ka “Tudaya Coseyng”, tuhunac ka “Tuhunac Coseyng”; dhuq kngkawas 1992 cida Cyokoku mi Hankoku ddha qnlhangan ka wada cyeyncyaw daw, ini puru Coseyng pquri pnlawa dha Hankoku lmawa da, kiya mi ini duwi nniqan lnlingay lmawa ddha qnlhangan niyi, kiya ka Coseyng mincu cuyi jnmin konghekwo u lixan ka jiyi “tudaya” mi splawa “Coseyng”, Tahan Minkwo ka splawa “Hankoku”.

Rikisi(歷史)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Pusu tyawmu: Rikisi Coseyng mi rikisi Coseyng mincu cuyi jnmin konghekwo.

Phiyu qnlhangan(建國)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kngkawas 1945 idas 8 diyax 15, wada tosyang ka Tanah Tunux, mnhdu ka Tumndha mccbu jeynseykay. Spuda bnkuwan Yaarta kaygi, sdurun pqlahang Amirika mi Orosiya ka Coseyng pantaw, kiya mi 38 seyng ka pntyusan qmlahang. Mntna kngkawas idas 8 diyax 26 cida, tudaya u phiyu “Pingan nantaw jnmin seyji ingkay” ka ngalan rinji singcng ciko. Idas 10 diyax 10 cida, phyuwan ka Coseyng kyosanto tudaya Coseyng bunkyoku, idas 11 diyax 18 cida wada knpriyux tmhangan “Tudaya Coseyng kyosanto”, Cinjcng ka wada dha wewan Tukingal Suki.

Cinjcng cucng jiday(金日成執政時期)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Mcbu tuhunac(進攻南部)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Pusu tyawmu: Hancan

Phiyu qnlhangan ka Coseyng daw, Cinjcng u smatang dmuwi wuri tongyi Coseyng pantaw, wada dyawan Suryeyn, jnmincyun Coseyng pa mniq kngkawas 1950 idas 6 diyax 25 cida wada hmrinas 38 seyng, rmading mcbu Hankoku, prading mccbu ka Hancan, binaw quri so sklwiyan ndan Coseyng niyi pa ini srwani Cyokoku, qnita Mawcetong pa, dmudul Cyokoku jnmin cyeyhwancyu knrmux ucilung Taiwan mi, mcbu Taiwan, kiya ka splayun kiya, dmayaw uuda Coseyng pantaw tongyi pa, pprngaun Cyokoku mi Coseyng hiti kiya da.

Lngcan sci(冷戰時期)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Cyeynrima undo

Mnhdu ka Hancan daw, Coseyng Rawtongtang cngcweyn smatang knbiyax mangal biyax mpqlahang, kingal u mbiyax bay dmudul umarang quri qmriqu Amirika, kiya mi pkla kari u Amirika ka muda smrading Hancan, alaw ka iyux miyah qmrqun Coseyng. Kingal uri pa, eyhu Coseyng pa prana quri tndahu Cinjucng, pusu knklanan niya pa mniq kngkawas 1950 ccida kndudul msnanaq mrana.

Hwangkongtong u wada brahun smmalu Tityey Pingjang.

Kngkkawas 1970 cida, kndudul pkmalu ka pnluban Cyokoku mi Amirika, kiya mi pkmaluka pnluban Tanah Tunux mi Amirika, kiya mi wada mlih hari ka rngcan uri, wada pkmalu hari ka pnluban quri Coseyng pantaw uri da. Kngkawas 1971 Hangkoku tanah jyujika huy mquri Coseyng tanah jyujika huy pusa kari muda mtqita pprngaw, kiya ka prngaw smatang ppstrngun ka mnrdang pntalax tnsapah, kiya mi wada dhuq cmiyuk kari ka Coseyng.

Qlhangan Cinjucng ccida(金正日執政時期)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Coseyng Rawtongtang congsuki, cusi qnlhangan Cinjucng mniq qmlahang dalih dmka seyki daw, kngkawas 1994 idas 7 diyax 8 mniq sapah nniqan na mrdang, 82 kngkawas ka kndusan na. Kngkawas 1997 (Coseyng cutiri kngkawas 89) idas 10, tudha nngalan kari laqi Cinjucng kiya ka Cincngju ka mangal Coseyng Rawtong tang congsuki, phyuwan lmutuc qmlahang.

Mqraqil pcaping(苦難行軍)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Alaw ka kngkawas 1991 cida wada pktalax ka Suryeyn daw, uka ka dnyawan dha Coseyng da, Coseyng mi burah pnhiyu ka Orosu ryeynpang ddha qnlhangan na mawyi u, wana msngari 5.5% ncuxan bay da. Kiya mi Cyokoku mniq kngkawas 1922 idas 8 diyax 24 mtuhuy Tahanminkwo cyeyncyaw, kiya daw, wada uka ka pusu bay dangi dha seyji mi mpdayaw, kiya u alaw ka quri uuda waycyaw, kiya mi wada pqnaqah niqan pnluban dha keyjay ka Cyokoku, prading mniq kwoci syakay so bay sqrbuq mi wada so prmuxun mi so bay wa sqada icil. Mniq kcka u mqraqil bay ka quri uuqun cngce mi uka ka waycyaw mpdayaw, Coseyng u mniq kngkawas 1994 cida smturung knbeyhing bay mqrinuc uqan uray, dhuq kngkawas 1998 u hana so msbalay hari cida, hnqilan kana qnlhangan u muda smpu ka nganguc u 25 knbkiyan hiyi sediq dhuq 350 knbkiyan hiyi sediq, binaw uka ka mndungus bay kari.

Wada ka mqrinuc uqan uray daw, wada mtudha bukung Coseyng ka Cijucng u pusa kari wad aka mqraqil bay diyax, balay bay mprading mtmay “qnlhangan beyhing mi mbiyax” na jitay. Quri so taxa niya pa, Hankoku soto Cintacong mniq kngkawas 1988 mtmay Cingwatay daw, knbiyax bay knpriyux mi pnluban dha Cyokoku mi Tanah Tunux mi dssiyaw qnlhangan. Kngkawas 2000 cida, Cintacong u dmudul “Rdax hidaw cngce”, smatang malu spuda psblayaq pprngaw muda psbalay uuda mtdha ka Coseyng pantaw.

Pkrana hecu uci(發展核武)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Hankoku u dmayaw quri keyjay Coseng, Coseng u wada mangal hbangan pkranan hewu, kiya mi wada pkla wisu muda pkranan knbeyhing bay quri ddiyun mccbu. Iyux dmudul Coseng palix pkranan hewu, Amirika pa mniq kngkawas 2003 u msupu Cyokoku, Tanah Tunux, Hangkoku mi Orosiya tuhuy Coseng muda mmturu qnlhangan pprngaw.

Coseng rawtongtang mpitu beyhing muda mssli pprngaw umaw mniq Pingjang na 4.25 bungka huykwan.

Cincngen qmlahang ccida(金正恩執政時期)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kngkawas 2011 idas 12 diyax 19 cida wada mrdang ka tudha bukung nngalan kari Cincngju, kndusan na u 69 kngkawas, swayi bay laqi niya Cincngen ka lmutuc bukung bay nngalan kari. Kiya mi, quri so uuda hectan pa mniq Coseng pataw u ida ini psblani niya na, kngkawas 2013 idas 2 diyax 12 cida u muda tumn3 hesu. Mntna kngkawas idas3 diyax 5 cida muda pkla kari sliqun dh aka “Pnsdhuwan patas msangay mccbu ka Coseng” mi sqtan dha uri ka Coseng pantaw huycyunsucyu panmntyeyn pnwaluk mnsupu heytay Amirika, snrading mutung bburah pqraqil Coseng pantaw.

Smdhu cngcweyn(鞏固政權)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kngkawas 2013 cida ka kngkawas Cincngen muda psbalay lnglungan niya, idas 6 u wada sbrahun mkala kengpo ka Rawtongtang cangcng “Sndhu tang pskingal lnglungan tisi mk10 bnkuwan”, plaxan ka quri sobntasan “kongcan cuyi” mi “ucan cyeyci cwancng”, pryuxan “cuti keming” kiya mi pkla balay Coseng pa “Daran Payto” ka muda smlutuc bukung nngalan kari. Mqaras smsung pnhyuwan qnlhangan mi smsung pnhyuwan tu68 kngkawas ka Coseng Rawtongtang, muda pkla sinbung seyhu “Rawtong sibung” ka Rwatongtang, pkla kari pnway ryenpang ka kiya sa pkrdax mi snbeyhing bay msupu pskingal tongyi ka kiya.

weyyeyncang Cincngen(外交破冰)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kngkawas 2018 idas 6 diyax 12 cida, Amirika mi Coseng pa wada so rikisi mpuruq ka huda ddha qnlhangan niyi, soto Amirika Tangna Cwanou msupu Coseng Rawtongtang weyyeyncang Cincngen mniq Sicyapo muda pprngawan bukung, kiya ka babaw mnhdu ndanan Mccbu Hangkoku pa tumntxan mtqita ka bukung bay ddha qnlhangan niyi, kiya mu muda msupu psdhu matas Ryeynhe Kongpaw. Kngkawas 2019 idas2 diyax 27 dhuq diyax 28 cida bukung nngalan kari ddha qnlhangan niyi pa mniq Yeynan Heney muda tumndha Coseng mi Amirika bukung mtqitaq dqras pprngaw, muda pprngaw quri Coseng Pantaw uuda pkngatun ka hecubakudang, kiya mi alaw ini dhuq ppsruwa kari quri malix pnsruwan, hiti bay daw wada ini pndungus ka pnrngawan. Mntna kngkawas idas 6 diyax 30, wisu mniq Hangkoku homung ka soto Amirika Cwanpu dhuq dha Han uxay cyusucyu Panmntyeyn, msupu bukung bay  Coseng Cincngen mtqita dqras. Pduwi bawa Cincngen ka Cwanpu, kiya daw hmqangaw pnswayan ayus cyunsu dha Han, kiya mi mhiyu quri Coseng msupu passing, muwaya bay taxa mndungus soto Amirika qmqah dxral qnlhangan Coseng.

Nniqan Lnglingay(地理)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Juga hnyuwan lnlingay Coseng.

Tndxral Qnlhangan(疆域)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Wa mniq tuhranan hidaw daya Asia na tudaya Coseng Pantaw, peywey 37° dhuq 43°, tongcing 124° dhuq 131°, knrbangan niya pa 120,540 pinghwang km, kiya ka knkana knrbangan 55% Coseng Pantaw. Qnlhangan niyi pa tturu dqras u mkeucilung: tuuqiyan hidaw u niqan Ucilung Mcays mi Cosengwan, tuhranan hidaw u msdalih Ucilung Tanah Tunux, tudaya u msdalih Cyokajnminkonghekwo, tuhunac u mslutuc Tahanminkwo mi Ucilung Hranan Hidaw. Tuhranan hidaw day aka Rosyeyn tuhuy Cyokoku mi Orosiya nniqan mknghu ucilung tmuayus Tumncyang (Coseng pa splawa dha “Tomancyang” tmhangan) mtqita.

Lipax lnlingay(地貌)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Coseng pa ou dwiyaq mi tikuh ka rnux, hmrinas 80%

Mnuda qluluy Pingjang sotu Coseng ka Tatongcyang.

tndxral u to bay dwiyaq kana, duma dwiyaq u to bay hmrinas haypa 2000 m, pdkanan paypa 440 m.

Knkana qnlhangan Coseng pa niqan 138 ka yayung hmrinas 40 km knbbaraw dha, pusu na bay yayung u kiya ka knkana yayung tnuayus Cyokoku Yaryucyang mi Tumncyang. Kcka na hini pa, Yaryucyang ka knbbaraw bay yayung knkana qnlhangan, knbbaraw niya u 790 km.

Kkarac(氣候)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kkarac knkana Coseng Pantaw pa mnwentay cihong, tura bay ka srwasaw mi rbawan mi krpuhan mi misan, srwasaw u idas 3 dhuq idas 5, rbawan u mniq idas 6 dhuq idas 8, krpuhan u mniq idas 9 dhuq idas 11, misan daw mniq idas 12 dhuq idas 2. Pdkanan kntlxan pa 8° dhuq 12°, qnyuxan kngkawas pa 1000 hawmi dhuq 1200 hawmi, diyax qmuyux u mniq idas 7 dhuq idas 8 rbawancida, kkarac kndnguwan u mniq idas 4 dhuq idas 5. Alaw ka tudaya yayung Coseng pa muda qluluy dwiyaq, mumal dungan ka smliq waya mpowi smipaq qhuni, kiya ka wada kndudul mkala ka qsiya yayung. So kiya qulung snturung knbeyhing quyux cida, mtbiyax bay ka qsiya yayung, slxan bay muda mkrngecux. Kiya uri u, nniqan mkngahu u cilung u danan bay miyuk knbeyhing bwihur uri.

Knhbrawan hiyi sediq cincuta mniq kngkawas 2015 ka Coseng.

Knhbrawanhiyi sediq(人口)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Knhbrawan hiyi sediq Coseng pa ya bay 2400 knbkiyan knhbrawanhiyi, snaw mi qridin u mntna hari knhbrawan. Quri so kngkawas pa 0-14 kngkawas u 16.1%, 15-64 u 68.2%, hmrinas 65 kngkawas u 15.7%. Spuda Ryeynhekwo quri so knrudan hiyi sediq pa hmrinas 65 kngkawas ka pndkanan knkana 7% knhbrawan hiyi sediq, hmrinas 60 kngkawas ka pndkanan knkana 10% knhbrawan hiyi sediq ka kiya, Coseyng u kingal knrudan kngkawas syakay. Kiya uri u, Coseyng pa kiya ka knkana jeynseykay quri minjoku slxan bay qnlhangan, Coseng pa to bay so Coseyng minjoku, ini khbaraw ka Hwajn mi sediq Tanah Tunux.

Seyji(政治)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Pusu tyawmu: Seyhu Coseyng mincu cuyi jnmin konghekwo mi seyji Coseyng mincu cuyijnmin konghekwo.

Singcng cyuhwa(行政區劃)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Chonsǒn Minjujuǔi In'min Konghwaguk.png
Bnkuwan Hangan Hangan jiyi Coseyng Sohu Knrbangan Knhbrawan Pnsltudan nniqan (Coseyng pataw)
1 Pijangsu 평양직할시 3,194 3,255,388 Pingan
2 Rosyeyn tepyeysu 라선특별시 746 205,000 Syeyncing
3 Nanpu teoyeysu 남포특별시 829 455,000 Pingan
4 Kaycng tepyeysu 개성특별시 179 308,440 Cingci
5 Cucyangtaw 자강도 Cyangcyeysu 16,613 1,147,946 Pingan
6 Pingan peytaw 평안북도 Sinyicosu 12,191 2,450,110 Pingan
7 Pingan nantaw 평안남도 Pingcngsu 12,330 3,597,557 Pingan
8 Ucilung Mcays nantaw 황해남도 Haycosu 8,450 2,310,485 Ucilung Mcays
9 Ucilung Mcays peytaw 황해북도 Sariyeynsu 8,157 2,113,672 Ucilung Mcays
10 Cyangyeyn taw 강원도 Yeynsansu 11,091 1,477,582 Cyangyeyn
11 Syeyncing nantaw 함경남도 Syeynsingsu 18,534 3,050,000 Syeyncing
12 Syeyncing peytaw 함경북도 Cingcinsu 15,980 2,327,000 Syeyncing
13 Ryangcyangtaw 량강도 Huysansu 13,880 660,000 Syeyncing
閱‧論‧編 Pntbkuwan knbeyhing alang mkbrnux Coseyng

Jnko puca kngkawas 2008

Pingjangsu
Bnkuwan    Hangan alang mkbrnux Singcng cyuhwa Knhbrawan
Cingcinsu
1 Pingjangsu Pingjang cusyasu 3,255,288
2 Syeynsingsu Syeyncing nantaw 768,551
3 Cingcinsu   Syeyncingpeytaw 667,929
4 Napu teoyeysu Ucilung Mcays peytaw 366,815
5 Yeynsansu Cyangyeyn taw 363,127
Syeynsingsu
6 Sinyisu Pingan peytaw 359,341
Nanpu tepyeysu
7 Twancwansu Syeyncing nantaw 345,875
8 Cyeycwansu Pingan nantaw 319,554
9 Kaycng tecisu Mcays peytaw 308,440
10 Sariyeynsu Mcays peytaw 307,764

Quri tnklanan(意識形態)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Qtayi: Cinjucng Cincngju cuyi.

Coseyng mincu cuyi jnmin konghekwo
Emblem of North Korea (1948–1993).svg
Seyhu mi seyji Coseyng

Siryey tyawmu

Coseyng Rawtongtang
Seyji

Syeyncng ticu qnlhangan Biyax cikwan qnlhangan

Singcng cukwan qnlhangan

Suhwa cikwan qnlhangan

Seyji

Pskingal cansyeyn mi daya hunac cngce

Kwaohwang mi waycyaw

Juga lnlingay

Coseyng mincu cuyi jnmin konghekwo mi pusu balay konghekwo.

●閱●論●編

Coseyng pa spuda pusu lnglungan, syeyncyu lnglungan, sehuy cuyi qmlahang qnlhangan. Kndadax kngkawas 1948 mnhdu phiyu qnlhangan ka Cincyeyncng daw, qnlhanga n niyi pa spuda Coseyng Ratongtang muda kingal tang cwancng, msngari ka duma cngtang (mray so Coseyng sehuy mincutang mi Tyeyntawkyo cingyotang) pa dmuwi hnyuwan cancngtang dmayaw Rawtongtang qmlahang qnlhangan. Kiya uri u, knbeyhing bay bukung mpqlahang u ida nanaq dtnslutuc Cinjucng, Cincngju mi Cincngen ka tnpusu, tuturu hiyi niyi u mnuda qpahun Rawtongtang congsuki mi weyyeyncang. So kiya, spoda Cingci sweyjn csyunse mniq kngkawas 2008 muda pkla cida ka kcka mincu csu pa, bsiyaq bay puting hiti ka Coseyng.

Mrdang ka Cinjucng mi Cincngju daw ida dha spruwan bay qmita konghekwo cusi ana dhuq knuwan mi congsuki Rawtongtang ana dhuq knuwan.

Knbeyhing bay bukung(最高領導)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Pusu tyawmu: Bnkuwan bukung Coseyng mincu cuyi jnmin konghekwo.

Muwaya bay bukung Coseyng ka Cinjucng, mniq Tanah Tunux qmlahang cida pa kmciyuk Tanah Tunux undo uri ka hiya, mniq mcbu Putyeynpaw sawcan u kiya ka wada niqan hhangan, kiya daw wada phyuwan Suryeyn ngalan bukung Coseyng Rawtongtang. Kngkawas 1948 cida phiyu qnlhangan ka Coseyng daw, balay bay psdhuwan Coseyng Rawtongtang weyyeyncang mi neyke sosyang ka Cinjucng. Babaw niya daw, wada niya skkingal pkngatun ka tudaya Coseyng Pantaw pnssliyan rmirih kyosangcuyi Syeyncyunhe mi rmirih Minjokucuyi Cawwancu daw, kiya da u alaw “Amirika cyeyntyey” ka qnquwan dha mi wada niya pqilun ka bukung Coseyng Rawtongtang Pusyeynyong mi tnhiqan na.

Wansotay yisutang

Seyhu cyeyko(政府結構)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Coseyng pa rihwa ciko ka knbaraw jnmin kaygi, kiya ka pnsdhuwan keyngpo knbaraw baybuyax cikwan qnlhangan. Mk5 kngkawas mntxan seyngkyo, kngkawas u mn2 bnkuwan kaygi, kiya mi knbaraw jnmin kaygi cangjn weyyeynhuy ka muda lmawa kaygi. Kbaraw jnmin kaygi na biyax u kiya knkana snbburah keyngpo, horicu mi psdhu qnlhangan pquri kcka mi nganguc cngce na kana snrdingan; ddaun dha qmpah pa kiya ka knkana seyngkyo; mray so kwowu weyyeynhuy weyyeyncang, knbaraw jnmin kaygi cangjn weyyeynhuy weyyeyncang mi neyke congri mi bukung qnlhangan, snyi mi yosang keyjay qnlhangan, smruwa pnklanan kari qnpah congyang seyhu mi neyke. Alaw muda sndhu knbaraw jnmin kaygi muda qmpah qpahun knkana niyi, jnmin kaygi u phiyu horicu, yosang weyyeynhuy ka truma dungan.

Saya, knbaraw jnmin kaygi pa niqan 687 hiyi sediq, cangjn weyyeyncang ka Cweyronghay, kiya ka pquri nganguc na yeynso qnlhangan uri. Kiya mi, quri so congyang u phiyu jnmin kaygi uri mi, taw, su mi cyun u niqan nanaq tnualang jnmin kaygi uri, taygiying u mn4 kngkawas mntxan ka diyax sqpah dha.

Keyngpo(憲法)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Pusu tyawmu: Keyngpo Coseyng mincu cuyi jnmin konghekwo.

“Keyngpo Coseyng mincu cuyi jnmin konghekwo” pa mnniq kngkawas 1948 ka mnwaya bay wada muda phiyu, psdhu cyako seyhu, pnluban uuda seyhu mi qpahun cucngtang Coseyng Rawtongtang. Keyngpo ka psbalay kongmin u niqan biyax mtrawah rmngaw kari, biyax seyngkyo, mangal mdhu bay biyax pcahu, biyax mtrawah snhiyan mi biyax kongmin mi biyax seyji.

Pnwaya na suhwa Coseyng

Suhwa(司法)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Hoeyng mi Keynsaeyng Coseyng ka cikwan pcahu mi keynsa qnlhangan Coseyng, kiya mi kasi ka muru bay dndulan Coseyng Rawtongtang, quri so pnwaya pcahu u spuda keyngpo, hoeyng kocnghwa mi singsu susonghwa ka pnspuwan niya.

Seyngkyo(選舉)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Pusu tyawmu: Seyngkyo Coseyng mincu cuyi jnmin konghekwo.

Kndadax kngkawas 1948 prading, mk5 kngkawas mntxan muda knkana qnlhangan seyngkyo ka Coseyng, muda umaw mi pttuku knhbrawan hiyi knbaraw jnmin kaygi. Kiya mi, ana so wada ana so wada puwaya kana 17 kngkawas kongmin u niqan biyax muda seyngky o mi malu danan phiyu uri, binaw balay bay pa kana hangan mpseyngkyo u tna mnhdu Coseyng Rawtongtang da.

Keyjay(經濟)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Pusu tyawmu: Keyjay Coseyng.

Mnhdu phiyu qnlhangan ka Coseyng daw, sntama qqpahun ppnwalang mi kongyey ka kndusan dha. Kknkawas 1950 mi kknkawas 1960, mdhu ka seyji Coseyng, quri waycyaw pa ppwaluk Suryeyn mi Cyoka jnmin konghekwo mi qnlhangan sehuy cuyi, ini biyaw pkranan ka keyjay. Binaw, alaw quri uuda cyeykosing nanaq keyjay Coseyng, so kiya kknkawas 1980 ccida daw wada kndudul mstabuy ka keyjay dha. Hiti bay daw kknkawas 1990 ccida wada plhla h ka Suryeyn daw wada kasi elih ka dnyawan nganguc mi so bay uxay mpdhuq kana ka keyjay dha.

Qnpahan ppnwalang Coseyng.

Qqpahun ppnwalang(農業)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Pusu tyawmu: Qqpahun ppnwalang mi qnlqilan ppcaping Coseyng mincu cuyi jnmin konghekwo. Coseyng pa knkana jeynseykay murux bay taxa wisu muda mssupu qqpahun ppnwalang mi dmuwi so niyi ka tnpusu na qnlhangan. Kndadax kngkawas 1948 mnhdu phiyu qnlhangan daw, kiya mi muru Suryeyn dmuwi mssupu qmpah, kndadax qnlhangan mangal rhak, qqiya ddiyun qmpah, hiriyo mi kikay pnsuwan qnlhangan, spuda tmnsa seyhu phuma qnpahan.

Saya pa, nongcanpin Coseyng u niqan payay, lhngay, bunga tumun, sukay snpruwan, ssukay; dapa, babuy mi balung rodux.

Cuci kojyo na Sicwan.

Kongyey(工業)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Coseyng u mniq quri kongyey pa mntna muda curing keyjay, seyhu u muda muway janryaw mi jayryaw kojyo, kojyo u muda muru tmnsa seyhu smmalu ssmlun qqiya  mi knou niya. Mniq kngkkawas 1950 ccida, wada ini biyaw pkranan niya ka kongyey Coseyng, knkana hnranan smnalu kongyey mniq iyax kngkawas 1953 dhuq kngkkawas 1960 pa wada mrana 39%, kiya u wada ini baka kana ka knkana jeyngseykay. Kiya uri ka cida pa, Coseyng u thiti Tanah Tunux tudha knbeyhing qnlhangan kongyey tuhranan hidaw Asia. Kiya mi, alaw wada plhlah ka Suryeyn, wada uka pusu bay dangi dha ka Coseyng , knbeyhing bay mlih ka pnyahan nengyeyn, kasi mntxan msbukuy bay ka kongyey, mniq kngkawas 2002 cida, knkana qnlhangan pa niqan 3/4 kojyo ka wada mluk, krinah bay mqriqu ka keyjay na Coseyng.

Rhngun Tatong nniqan sanan rmiwaw Coseyng.

Sangyey(商業)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Coseyng pa muda cihwa keyjay, kiya uri u ini sruwa cupncuyi. So kiya, wana kndadax Suryeyn mi Cyoka jnmin konghekwo mari uuqun, hiryo mi janryaw, ini hari psupu qnlhangan icil muda mawyi. Kiya uri pa, Mniq mbukung cida ka Cinjucng u muda mbiyax bay so smksik quri uuda tnsediq mtrawah muda mbbari, kcka qnlhangan mbbari mi sangyey u maku bay so quli qlhangan qnhlangan.

Juga niyi u snbrahan kndadax kngkawas 2016 Qnlhangan Amirika Hangkong mi Taykong Congsu speyyah cka baraw karac passing smmalu juga hranan rdax kman ka jeynseykay. Muda pnsung ssiyaw qnlhangan niya ka Coseyng pa mchdil bay ini ttuku Rdax mi deyngki ka Coseyng, mniq kcka juga Coseyng niyi pa knbeyhing hari rdax ka sotu na Pingjangsu.

Nengyey(能源)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Babaw pnhiyu qnlhangan ka Coseng pa, kiya ka speyyah Suryeyn mi Cyoka jnmin konghekwo dmuwi mhnuk bay hbangan mari nengyeyn. So kiya, mniq iyax kngkkawas 1940 dhuq kngkkawas 1980 ccida, mdhu hari ka ddiyun nengyey. Binaw, alaw wada ini pndungus ka keyjay Suryeyn, meysa Coseyng kasi ka dmuwi mndungus bay hbangan muda mari janryaw, kiya ka prading ini knbaka ka ddiyun nengyeyn Coseyng.

Ppanan rulu(交通)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Pusu tyawmu: Ppanan rulu Coseyng mincu cuyi jnmin konghekwo. 

Ppanan rulu sitong Coseyng hukay panan rulu, panan kisya, panan asu mi panan skoki. Kcka na hiya, knbbaraw bay knkana panan rulu Coseyng oa 31,200 km, kiya mi 682 km ka kawsukongru, binaw niqan 96.6% (29,203 km) na elu rulu pa ini spawi bnaqi mi tipiq btunux mi ini hdani elu krotang uri.

Kisya Coseyng

Panan kisya(鐵路)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Mnhdu phiyu qnlhangan ka Coseyng daw, kiya ka mbiyax bay pkranan ppanan kisya. Panan kisya Coseng pa niqan 11 ka panan kcka qnlhangan, kiya mi lmutucdhuq knkana pusu bay alang mkbrnux, knbrawan niya pa 5224 km. Kiya mi, 80% kisya u wada tyeyncihwa. Alaw ka llabang bay ka qnpuran, kiya mi mhnuk panan uri, kisya ka pusu bay panan mquri thiyaq ssanan, panan kisya ka 80% knkana panan sediq qnlhangan.       

Panan asu(水路) [smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Panan asu pa mniq Coseyng u mclokah hari kiya, wana 2% ka qpahun niya mapa qqqiya mi ssediq. Saya pa, pusu bay tdrunan asu u wa mniq Nanpu , Rocin, Yeynsan mi Syeynsing; Pusu bay yayung panan asu ka wa mniq yayungYaryu mi yuyung Tatong, knbrawan knkana kcka qnlhangan ka kcka yayung panan asu pa 2250 km.        

Skoki Kawri hangkong

Panan skoki(航空)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kndadax kngkawas 1946 kaminhang na Coseyng, cida u Suryeyn mi Coseyng pa wada msupu psumu hbangan phiyu hangkong kojyo. Kngkawas 1954 cida, wada mangal biyax mqlahang hangkong kojyo ka Coseyng, kiya mi sbuway Coseyng jnmincyun ka mqlahang. Kngkawas 1993 cidaw daw wada knpriyux Kawri hangkong ka hangan na, kiya mi ddha ka mquri kcka qnlhangan Coseyng skaya na hangkong kojyo (kingal uri ka Cyokoku kwoci hangkong). Dduwi Peycing mi Haysnwey smquri skaya Pingjang Swenan kwoci cicang na kwoci hangseyn.

Qqpahun mpriwaw(旅遊業)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Pusu tyawmu: Qqpahun mpriwaw Coseyng.  

Alaw iyux muda pkrana wayhuy, mniq kngkkawas 1990 cida thiti prading knbiyax bay pkrana qpahun mpriwaw. Mniq kngkawas 1998 cida, Coseyng mi Hangkoku syeyntay citwan pkrana nniqan kwankwang dwiyaq Cinkang. Dhuq kngkawas 2007 cida, knkana u niqan 170 knbkiyan hiyi sediq mnusa tnualang hiya, kiya mi wada dhuq kingal oku ka sntkuwan hbangan cida. Uxay wana Dwiyaq Cinkang uri, Pingjang mi Panmntyeyn ka sanan balay nniqan sediq mpriwaw uri, sdmhaw quri qmita rmweri Arirang ka qtaun balay uri, kiya uri pa tnninun lnnihu qumi Coseyng congsin mi cinyeynpin canso congsin.

Qqpahun inhang(銀行業)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Congyang inhang Coseyng ka Coseyng mincu cuyi jnmin konghekwo congyang inhang, seykining hwasing Coseyngyeyng mi seykining muda kwoci mawyi suwu. Kiya mi Coseyng pa niqan cawsang inhang, Cyokoku qqpahun ppnwalang inhang mi Cocu inhang.

Knklanan Coseyng bkudang skaya pusu kayryey, Inhesiryey mhaqun hwocyeyn pusu tudaya so kari dha pa ngengalun dha quri keswey, binaw malu sbrahun tantaw huytan uri.

Kwaohwang(國防)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Pusu tyawmu: Coseng jnmincyun.  

Coseyng ucwangriryang ka Coseng jnmincyun, pcnakan rucyun, haycyun, kongcyun, caryeycyun, tecongcwocancyun mi tecongputuy mmturu kluwanan hheytay.

Hecu uci(核子武器)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Qtayi: Coseyng hesuyeyn ryeypyaw. Coseyng pa mnniq kngkawas 1956 phiyu hecu wuri yeyncyoso, kngkawas 1962 cidaumniq msthiyaq Pingjang tudaya 90 km na nniqan Ningpyeyn smmalu hwaningru. Kngkawa 1978 cida, wada kmari kari bay yo ka Coseyng. Babaw na iyax 30 kngkawas cida, wada skkingal phiyu 6 he yeyncyo congsin ka Coseyng, dha mi 1 ka hetyeyn syeyntuy.

Mquri nganguc pbari ppuniq(對外軍售)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Wada pkranan tantaw tawtan ka Coseng, kiya mi mquri nganguc pbari ppuniq. Kngkawas 2009 idas 4 cida, Ryeynhekwo anrihuy pa wada dha ngalan pusu bay pusu mbari ppuniq mi pusu tantaw tawtan cukoce Coseyng ka Coseyng kwangyey pkranan mawyi kongsu (thnganan KOMID uri). Spuda kari Ryeynhekwa pa, wa mniq Pingjangsu congsin ka KOMIN congpu. Wa mniq Peycing mi jeynseykay knkingal nniqan pa niqan pnhiyu dha pankongsu ka KOMIN uri, kiya mi muda pbari ppuniq mi dmudul mpbari mari ppun iq Coseyng.

Coseyng Rawtongtang congsuki Cincngju pa mtqita dqras soto Orosiya Pucing (kngkawas 2000).

Waycyaw(外交)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Pusu tyawmu: Bnkuwan Coseyng mincu cuyi jnmin konghekwo waycyaw mi Coseyng cyeyncyaw.

Pusu tyawmu: Bnkuwan mnniq Coseyng waycyaw ciko mi bnkuwan Coseyng cuway ciko.

Kngkawas 2000 idas 10, sota Amirika Kerintun mniq Hwasngtun Paykong mtqita dqras Coseyng kwohwang weyyeynhuy tukingal huweyyeyncang Cawmingru cusway.

Coseng pa mniq kngkawas 1975 idas 5, wada mndungus bay tumal “77 qnlhangan citwan” pnsliyan qnlhangan, mntna kngkawas cida idas 8 balay bay tumal Pucyeymong undo. Kngkawas 1991 idas 9 diyax 17 cida msupu Hangkoku tumal Ryeynhekwo. Kngkawas 2000 idas 7, mtmay pprngawan nniqan Tongsyey (ARF). Msupu kana 163 qnlhangan (knkana Omong ) psdhu pnruban waycyaw.

Kiya uri u, alaw ka Coseyng qmita Amirika, Nihong mi Tahanminkoku ka “pspayi cngcweyn”, so kiya ida ini tuhuy tuturu qnlhangan niyi muda knbalay bay pnluban quri waycyaw. Coseyng uri ka murux bay ini psdhu cyeyncyaw Nihong na mntmay kcka qnlhangan Ryeynhekwo. 

Sehuy(社會)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Cyeyci(階級)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Alaw pkbiyax qnhlangan dha, bukung pnhiyu qnlhangan Cinjucng pa mniq kngkkawas 1950 tbukuy pa, spuda hnyuwan txtaxa sediq psnakan na turu kluwanan, kcka na hiya u kiya ka psdalih suri, congri suri mi pspayis suri. Cinjicng u mniq kngkawas 1970 kcka knbaraw jnmin kaygi muda snbarah snmalu waya, psnakan dha “tnpusu kluwanan” , “mkllu kluwanan” mi “pspayis kluwanan” tuturu kluwanan, psnakan 51 cida kluwanan Dungan, sduwi dha beytaq saya. Spuda snpuwan dha pa, knhbrawan tuturu kluwanan niyi u ya bay 20%, 50% mi 20%.

Biyax sediq(人權)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Qnnaqah bay ka ndanan quri biyax sediq Coseyng. Kongmin qnlhangan dha u uka mtrawah seyji, alaw qnlhangan dha pa ini sruwa kongmin knhmuc muda pkla lnglungan dha nanaq; ana so murux bay ka pradiyo, ptreybi mi tongsyunse, wada spuda horicu psdhu qlhangun seyhu qnlhangan kana kiya; naqah spuda nanaq lnglungan rmngaw kari ka sediq qnlhangan mi naqah tuhuy ana imi sediq qnlhangan icil-ana sediq mniq tecweyn alang mkbrnux Pingjang cusyasu uri, musa nganguc ka dhiya pa kasi ka muda sinsey, naqah mtrawah mlatac Pingjangsu musa alang mkbrnux icil mi alang mpqpah uri.

Cuan(治安)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Seyhu Coseyng pa uka bntasan dha smpu hwancweyryu, binaw spuda bnsiyaq bay mnniq qnlhangan hiya ka sediq qnlhangan icil ka pkla kari pa, knmalu hari ka cuan dha hiya, ana so mqrinuc u ini owi uri. Kcka hiya, ancyeyn quri mtdiyal kcka elu ka knttu bay kiya, knkingal knbeyhing alang mkbrnux u niqan pangpay pnsliyan rrisaw kana: mtdiyal ka dhiya mi, mpowi uri.

Meyti(媒體)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Bnkuwan kngkawas sinbung mtrawah cusu Coseyng
Kngkawas Bnkuwan
Kngkawas 2002      139/139
Kngkawas 2003      166/166
Kngkawas 2004      167/167
Kngkawas 2005      167/167
Kngkawas 2006      168/168
Kngkawas 2007       168/168
Kngkawas 2008       168/169
Kngkawas 2009 172/173
Kngkawas 2010 177/178
Kngkawas 2012 178/179
Kngkawas 2013 178/179
Kngkawas 2014 179/180
Kngkawas 2015 179/180
Kngkawas 2016 179/180
Kngkawas 2017 180/180
Kngkawas 2018 180/180
Kngkawas 2019 179/180
Patas pnyahan:

Ukwocyey cice u ini eniq kngkawas 2011 pkla kari bntasan                     .

Keyngpo Coseyng pa pndungus sediq qnlhangan niqan mtrawah rmngaw kari mi mtrawah singbung, kiya mi balay na bay u, knkana meyti qlhangan Coseyng pa na qnlhangan kana, kiya mi ngalan qqiya dmayaw umarang Rawtongtang mi Cinsu, ana ima pusa kari pqnqah ddha hiyi niyi daw pchuwan musa cicongying mi pkdira phuqil. So kiya, ukwocyey cice mniq kngkawas 2016 cida muda pkla kcka cusu mtrawah singbung pa, pputing hiti tudha kana jeyngseykay ka bnkuwan na Coseyng.

Treybita na Pingjang

Treybi (電視)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Coseyng pa phiyu 5 na qnlhangan treybi pingtaw, kiya ka knkana Coseyng congyang treybitay, Wanso treybitay, Rongnansan treybitay, Coseyng tiyu treybitay, mi kingal ka piru treybi pingtaw.

Kiya uri pa, so ndanan mruhu qnlhangan cngce, wada dha stqan kana ka pnluban qnlhangan kcka mi qnlhangan nganguc na weysing kwangpo syunhaw, knrinah bay qndahang quri treybi syunhaw Nihong mi Hankoku. Srhawan bay ka kwangkaw msobay uri.

Pradiyo(電台)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Coseyng pa niqan 6 knkana pradiyo na qnlhangan; Kngkawas 1945 cida, phiyu pradiyo Pingjang, kiya ka muwaya bay pradiyo. Bukuy tturu kngkawas daw, wada knpriyux Coseyng congyang pradiyo ka Pingjang pradiyo, ana beytaq saya dmuwi niya na.

Patas Singbu(報章)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Qnawal(電話)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kingal qnawal mniq Coseyng pa knkrayan balay, knkrayan niya u ya bay so 20 kngkawas sntkuwan hbangan mpqpah sediq. So kiya mniq qnlhangan dha pa srhawan bay, mniq Coseyng u kcka mk100 sediq pa wana bay 5.2 bay ka qnawal, kcka niyi pa, ya bay wana 20% ka ddiyun nanaq txtaxa sediq kiya.

Qnawal ddilun(手機)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Qnawal ddilun mi cuhuysing qnawal ddilun ka kngkawas duray bburah qqiya ka kngkawas duray bburah qqiya tongsyun. Kngkawas 2002 idas 11, Coseyng pa mntuhuy Taykwo ciyey msupu dmudul GSM quri dmuwi qnawal ddilun, bnaw mnniq kngkawas 2004 cida hmtur ssediq qnlhangan dmuwi qnawal ddilun.

Wangru(網路)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Pusu tyawmu: Coseyng wangci wangru.  

Iyux qndahang qnlhangan sediq kndadax wangci wangru ppwaluk quri cusyun nganguc; so muda smliq qnqlhangan dha Coseyng, seyhu qnlhangan u dmuudl “Kwangming wang” ka neyryeyn wang sitong cwoyey.

Kiya uri u, quri so sediq mpriwaw qnlhangan icil u, mniq pusu bay kwoci ryokang, mray so Yangcyawtaw beyhing ryokang, niqan quri ddiyun wangru kana, binaw mkray bay hbangan ddiyun, spuda so dnuwi kngkawas 2010 cida, mk100kb u 2 Oyeyn.

Pingjang jnmin cyucang

Pndkanan Kndusan(生活水準)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Ana so niqan duma sediq ka spuda mawyi stuku ou bay hbangan, binaw hbaraw bay sediq pa ida wana nanaq muda pktngi nanaq mudus kddiyax, niqan snpngan ka pndkanan kndusan, Sucyey inghang u wada dha sbku quri “qnlhangan tikuh sntkuwan ” ka Coseyng uri. Mndan tyawca u, mpqpah sediq tnqlhangan hiya pa pdkanan idas ka sntkuwan dha hbangan saya u 5000 (ya bay 5.56 pila Amirika), spuda tongcang ka pcriyu mi ini thiyi ka waya psasu dha, dmuwi 80% dhuq 90% hbangan sntkuwan dha mari uuqun, ana so ini ka kkuray, binaw knhbaraw bay u wana dmuwi mugi cyaw ka pusu bay uqun sktngi dha, mncun ka mkan buwah payay, mi quri hiyi tnqsiya, kiya uri u, sapah nniqun pa spuda pnwaya dha psasu, quri so tnsapah u ana ini buway hbangan taykang.

Qqita dha hnyuwan snaw mi qridin(兩性地位)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Keyngpo Coseyng bnkuwan pnwaya tu77 pa, qridin u dmuwi mntna snaw ka hnyuwan sehuy mi biyax, binaw syakay u dsnaw ka pusu dmudul, hnyuwan dqridin u ini bay spruwi qmita. Mnhdu muyas ka qridin daw, musa qmpah so kkngkawas han mi musa msediq da, uxay uri pa kasi eniq sapah musa snaw mi qmlahang llaqi, uxay uri u qmpah tikuh qqpahun.

Cusyun singsa(資訊審查)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Wada so mrana ka mniq tnuayus mbbari qqiya mi mqnaqah ka qmlahang tnuayus uri, hbaraw bay geyki treybi Cyokoku mi geyki treybi Hangkoku; kiya uri ka eyga Hawraywu Amirika, eyga Hangkoku, manga Nihong uri pa wada dha lingun madas Coseyng uri. Kana qqiya niyi pa wada sanan umarang Coseyng, kiya mi qrasun bay kana sediq, wada dhuq bay mkla ka sediq dha u balay bay mndungus jeynseykay mi unarang kari seyhu pa ini balay pntna.

Tqlahang quri secing(色情管制)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kana so quri qqiya mnsecing pa mniq pnwaya Coseyng mincu cuyi jnmin konghekwo u ngalan beyhing qnnaqah kana. Iyux dha shtur ka quri so “pncahu mcays”, niqan ou kluwanan ka uuda hmtur, mray so wana malu qmita kikay DVD smnalu Coseyng, kiya u wada dha pryuxun mntna smnalu Coseyng ka cipan kikay qqtaun DVD smnalu qnlhangan icil; kasi pstqi ka deyngki, knkingal sapah tuci keyngsa pnsanan kcka kikay qqtaun DVD (binaw duma sediq Coseyng pa dmuwi niqan nanaq deyki ka qqtaun DVD; kiya mi qqdriqan dha ka muda keyngsa); tuci qmraq mi mchdil bay ka baysyo mi kana pnbari DVD na uri.

Kingal byoing wa mniq Pingjang

Weysng pqita narux(醫療衛生)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Ini ngali pila kana ka pqita narux sediq qnlhangan Coseyng. Nasi knpqita narux ka ssediq pa, kasi ka musa sanan pqita narux tnualang han, nasi so beyhing hari narux u kiya ka hadun byoing tnualang, beyhing bay narux daw kiya ka shaduc Taw mi byoing Pingjang. Ini ktakur ka keyjay Coseyng ha pa, spruwan bay qmita seyhu ka quri qqita narux, iyax kngkawas 1955 dhuq kngkawas 1986 cida, byoing dha qnlhangan pa kndadax 285 mkala dhuq 2401 ka byoing, sanan pqita naru tnualang uri u kndadax 1020 mrana dhuq 5644. Knudus txtaxa sediq u kndadax qnlhangan Nihong na 38 kngkawas dhuq kngkawas 1986 cida daw 70 kngkawas da, hhuqilryu u kndadax 20.8% mlih dhuq 9.8%.

Cngce nniqan sapah(住房政策)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Mniq kngkawas 2002 cida, seyhu Coseyng u muway sapah ini ngali pila. Hana msturung ka msdungus pa qulung muda singsey seyhu daw, kiya ka dhuq mangal 50 pinghwanh m dhuq 200 pihwang m knlbangan na sapah, kiya mi dhuq mangal tansu mi ckuwi mi wakac uri.

Bungka(文化)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Pusu tyawmu: Coseyng mincu cuyi jnmin konghekwo.

Bungka Coseyng mincu cuyi jnmin konghekwo pa lmutuc bungka Coseyng cbiyaw na tukubeycu kiya mi sdan knou hari rakaw bungka Cyoka, mnhdu mccbu Han daw; mniq quri seyji thmuku tnsapah Cinsu, binaw quri so niyi u pnsltudan Coseyng pantaw pnwaya rikisi hwancweyn u ini so knbeyhing bay pnspngan kiya ka wada mblayaq muda, binaw qnbsyaqan mqrinuc keyjay mi shmuk ka kwoci; kiya ka niqan msngari biyax muda uuda bungka mi smmalu, knou so ka mndungus na qqiya smnalu bungka pa sntama hbangan seyhu mnhdu smmalu.

Kawri Cngcyukwan tubeyhing sapah pyasan.     

Kyoiku(教育)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Pusu tyawmu: Kyoiku Coseyng mincu cuyi konghekwo.

Coseyng pa kndadax kngkawas 1975 prading daw pnwaya knkana qnlhangan sediq muda 12 kngkawas yiwu kyoiku. Kiya uri u, seyhu u ini angal pila masu patas pyasun mi lubuy tqriyan patas, nasi ini srwani rudan ppuyas ka laqi daw danun pcahu. So kiya, dhuq kngkawas 1989 cida, kana rudan u mnhdu muyas kcka pyasan kyoiku. Sediq ini kla mita jiyi pa kndadax 75% mlih dhuq mkla mita jiyi kana ka saya mi dhuq mnuyas kcka kyoiku kana; laqi ttiping mnuyas u kndadax ini kndhuq 35% mkala dhuq 100%. Saya pa, pnwaya quri ppyasan Coseyng u 2 kngkawas ka sweycyeyn kyoiku, 5 kngkawas ka tiping pyasan kyoiku mi 6 kngkawas ka kcka ppyasan kyoiku.

Wa mniq Syangsancyun ka Pusyeynsu Sucyata.   

Snhiyan(宗教)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Wa mniq Myawsyangsan ka knbeyhing bay tukung sasing Ho.                 

Pusu tyawmu: Snhiyan Coseyng mincu cuyi jnmin konghekwo.

Alaw knbsiyaq bay ndanan mniq Coseyng pataw ka bukyo mi juswey, ddha niyi u wada mubungka Coseyng uri da. Mniq kngkawas 2005 cida, seyhu u muda smmalu sapah hosu snliqan mccbu Hancan cida, binaw kwancace qmita pa niyi u alaw spuda bungka hniti pnsltudan cbiyaw qmita, uxay quri uuda snhiyan.

Ndanan rikisi pa, Kiristokyo mi Teysukyio u mnuda beyhing bay pnqrqilan dha, kngkawas 1949 cida, 166 hiyi syosu mi sujyo Pingjang u wada sqra pkrmux ciconging, Teysukyo Pingjang cyawcyu cucyaw Hongronghaw u wada muda pnqrqilan uri. Cida pa, knkana qnlhangan pnrhulan u wada pkngatun kana. Kwoci huyingri cucu Open Doors tmiyu Coseyng ka kndadax cbiyaw knbeyhing bay pnqrqilan dha quri snhiyan Kiristo na qnlhangan, dhuq saya, niqan knkana 5 knbkiyan dhuq 7 knbkiyan kuriscyang ka wada dha sqraq mi shmuk ciconging.

Pnyahan pnatas(參考資料)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]