Macedonia

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Flag of Republic of Macedonia
Flag of Republic of Macedonia-Kwoci Makedon(馬其頓)

Macedonia(馬其頓)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Gaga kska Owcow ka Macedonia, 41 50 N, 22 00 E ka gaga na nniqan. Kana ka knlbangan na o 25,713 sq km(hangan na o Tg150) (knlbanga dxgal o 25,433 sq km, knlbangan qsiya o 280 sq km). Kana ka sejiqun o niqan 2,100,025 hiyi. Gaga Skopje ka pusu alang paru, jiyax 8 idas 9 ka jiyax skrayan klwaan. Manu ka dxgal Macedonia ga wada sugan 44.30% ka dxgal qpahan, 39.80% ka dxgal bbuyu, rahuq dxgal do niqan 15.90% na.

File:Coat of arms of North Macedonia.svg-Kwohwey(國徽)

Bukung klwaan ta sayang o kiya ka Gjorge Ivanov, pnaah hngkawas2009 idas 5 jiyax 12pnrajing kmlawa klwaan.

cinkhulan sa knita’ sa brbiru’

Rikisi(歷史)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

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Tumntxan Qnlangan Mccbu (一戰)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Mniq babaw Mccbu Makedon daw, nniqan Makedon, saya u ida nanaq ini knpriyux. Kngkawas 1918, Srbija-Hrvatska-Slovenija Wangkwo (Kngkawas 1923 cida wada knpriyux hangan Sraljevina Jugoslavija), phiyu mprmirih Skawpiyey mi uka pusu bay pnwaya uuda qqlahang, uxay mpsruwa anan manu uuda niya ssmruwa quri Macedonia minjoku. Balay bay u, alaw Tudaya Makedon hiti bay daw wada ngalan Srbija, quri so hnyuwan dha Macedonia pa ini balay psto rrngaw dha quwaq nina.

Kngkawas 1917 babaw qnlhangan Ruussia kming daw, wada knpriyux ka sntrngan Srbija Makedon. Spuda snrnuwan Shuytas, Kyosang kwoci muda qmita quri sntrngan ddaun Makedon u kasi ka sntama lnlingay seyji. 20 th 20 kngkkawas pnrdingan, qnita ddaun Kyosang Kwoci u dmkuh Makedon so musa mtaxa dukuricu Paarkan Suweyay Mincu Cngcweyn. Balay bay u, sntangan Soviet Union u sediq kyosang cuyi na Bulgaria mi Bulgaria-knkingal qnpringan Makedon u mssli mi msupu tuhuy, prrudu quri ddaun Balkans. Mniq quri qnlhangan kyosang kwoci u, pnsliyan kcka keming Makedon (IMRO) u wada dha pnklanun ka knklanan ‘Kingal dukuricu ka Makedon’ so mkala ‘Kingal pnspuwan hbaraw qnlhangan Balkans’, pskngalan dha ka knkana sediq Makedon. Binaw bsiyaq hari kngkawas daw Bulgaria mniq Tumn2 Qnlangan Mccbu cida u tumal cosinkwo ka dhiya, kiya ka thtur dnayaw dha ka Soviet Union da.

Tumn2 Qnlangan Mccbu(二戰)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kngkawas 1941, psramal kndadax Romania mpkrmux Greece ka heytay Doicu, dhuq ayus Bulgaria cida daw, muda meysa Bulgaria biyax uuda elu heytay ka Doicu. Spuda dha ssicu ppuniq, Sahwang Pawris 3su u uka balay brahan, mniq kngkawas 1941 idas 3 diyax 1 cida u balay bay tumal qnpringan Hwaransis. Akaw niqan ka “Patas pnsdhuwan naqah ppkmrmux ka Soviet Union mi Doicu”, uka ini sruwa ka ssdiq dha.

Babaw Mnhdu Mccbu(戰後)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Mnhdu mccbu u ida ini tblayaq ka Greece. Heytay seyhu mi minjoku cyeyhwang cnsyeyn u wada pspuruq beyhing bay mccbu ka kcka dha, ddha dha u ya bay 50,000 knhbrawan hiyi sediq ka wada mrdang mi mangal ruqah. Greece kyosangto u mniq kngkawas 1949 mccbu cida ka wada ini baka, kiya ka wada pkixun mlatac dhiya Greece ka sediq Slacic, uxay daw kasi ka dmuwi kari Greece mi hangan dha. Wada ini spruwi qmita ka sediq Slacic, ana seyhu uri u ini sruwa dhiya ka Sediq Tnpusu minjoku. Kngkawas 1923 dhuq saya, Greece pa wana balay Sisereys na Musrin ka wada mangal snrwanan Sediq Tnpusu minjoku.

Dukuricu(獨立)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

20 th 90 kngkkawas pnrdingan cida, soto Yugoslavia Makedon Ciro Krikrohu u smatang ini yahi pddayak mccbu kcka dha ka konhhekwo dha. Kndusan dha Makedon u sntama balay Yugoslavia mi mbiyax balay dmayaw ka kyosangto Yugoslavia. Prading mrrhak ka ddha niyi daw, quri Makedon u smruwa mi mbiyax dmudul wada mrana biyax dha ka Slavic Makedon minjoku ka snpruwan minjoku dha nanaq, mray so smruwa tnkari quri minjoku cuyi niya ‘Snbrahan Pskingal Makedon’. Mniq kcka Makedon konghekwo na sediq Albania joku u ini qqaras biyax minjoku dha u, wada ptkuhan kndudul mrana Makedon Slavic Minjoku Cuyi ka biyax minjoku dha. Ana so duma Serbia minjoku cuyi ka tnkari dmudul Makedon sbrinah tumal Serbia Dungan , binaw alaw snturung wisu mtbiyax quri Bosnia mi Hercegovina u mccbu Croatia, kiya u pspngun ka Bosnia mi Hercegovina dha ka Croatia u, kcka Makedon na knhbrawan sediq Serbia u krinah tikuh hiyi dha, so kiya u tnkari niyi u uka brahan mnduwa pdungus.

Tiri(地理)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Mackedon pa wa mniq kcka Tunarac hunac Balkans na lnlingay mi rikisi drxal nniqan. Bsiyaq balay, ayus niya u wada knbeyhing bay knpriyux, binaw dxral nniqan dha saya pa muda dmudul quri 6 qnlhangan Balkans: Greece (Tudaya na dxral nniqan Makedon), Tudaya Makedon konghekwo, Bulgaria (Blagoevgrad co), Albania, Serbia mi Kosovo. Tndxral dha u 67,000 pinghwang km (25,869 pinghwang km), knhbrawab dha u 476 knbkiyan hiyi sediq.

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Tnayus mi dungus niya(邊界與定義)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

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Quri so ndanan pa, quri so ayus mi dungus Makedon u wada snpusal knpriyux.

Mniq Huyri 2su pquri nganguc pkthdiq brah han, knrudah bay Makedon wangkwo (Dxral nniqan dha hiya u alaw niyi  mangal hangan) u wa mniq tukcka Makedon sng Greece saya. Mniq kongweyn 2 th, nniqan Makedon u ya bay so dungus niya Makedon saya, binaw dxral nniqan tudaya Makedon konghekwo saya pa cbiyaw u uka mniq ‘dxral nniqan Makedon’ han, ana so ini klayi ka pusu ndanan niyi, mniq thiti mk11 kcka seyki u, nniqan Makedon u wada ptura bay knpriyux. Roma tikwo na Makedon sng u kiya ka knkana tudaya mi tukcka Greece saya, knou dxral Makedon konghekwo mi tunarac hunac Albania. Slxan bay srngaw pa, pnhiyu sediq Roma ka mntna hangan singcng cyuyu Roma u rmabang knbeyhing Makedon knou balay. Mniq Roma jitayi thiti balay, tnayus sng pnsbrahan pnsnakan, wada kndudul mkMakedon cucyawcyu, kiya ka knkana tndxral saya Greece mi mksipaw ucilung Aycin ka Krite taw, tuhunac Albania, duma dxral nniqan Bulgaria mi Makedon konghekwo. Mniq Paycanting tikwo cida, dxral nniqan heytay Makedon prading balay ha u wa mniq tunarac yayung Struma duma dxral nniqan heytay Sereys han. Dxral nniqan niyi u kiya ka knkana ou bay nniqan Sereys, kiya u Makedon wangcaw u wada mangan hangan snpiyah dxral nniqan heytay niyi uri. So kiya, jidayi cida patas bntasan Paycanting cida rnengaw dha ‘Makedon’ u, ya bay kiya ka dxral nniqan heytay Makedon. Kingal Dungan u, dxral nniqan Makedon u mniq iyax kongweyn 9 dhuq 10 th cida u qnlhangan Bulgaria tikwo, hiti daw mniq kngkawas 1018 cida wada yahan knrmux mangal kcka Paycanting tikwo na dxral nniqan heytay Bulgaria.

Dhuq 14 th puting hiti, spuda Etuman tikwo ka kndudul knrmux mangal Tunarac Hunac Oco, ‘Makedon’ pa quri so hangan singcngcyu u wada uka mniq knou bay th da, kiya mi uka hari mniq bntasan kcka juga. Hangan niyi u alaw ka balay hangan lnlingay uri kiya ka wada mtutuy dungal. Mniq 19 th thiti niya, kiya ka niqan mntna hari saya ka tnuayus niya da.

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Knhbrawab hiyi sediq(人口統計)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Mniq kcka th mi jidayi msdalih saya, ida kiya msdal Balkans uri ka Makedon, sediq Greece, sediq Albania, sediq Wallachian, sediq Serbia, sediq Bulgaria, sediq Yoday, sediq Turkey u mnniq tnpusu hini kana.

Saya, Makedon ka kingal knou bay pnspuwan bungka mi dxral nniqan tnuayus, Pnrmaxan bay knou minjoku ka Makedon.

Kngkawas 1910, pnsnakan dxral nniqan Balkans mi tiping Asia na minjoku (Rncuhan matas kndadax New York na Walliam R. Shepherd).

Kngkawas 1918, Balkans mi tiping Asia na minjoku (Lnlingay qnlhangan).

Sediq Greece Makedon mniq bungka mi dxral nniqan dha u mdhu bay lnglungan rmngaw ‘sediq Makedon’ ka dhiya ("Macedonians", ji Greece: Μακεδόνε, Makedónes). Dhiya u hmrinas knhbrawan hiyi nniqan sediq tndxral hiya (Ya bay 51%), ya bay 250 knbkiyan hiyi, saya, hbaraw bay ka wa mniq Makedon (Greece). Sediq Greece Makedon u primax ou kluwanan minjoku, msupu duma Sediq Tnpusu knkingal minjoku, kiya uri ka sediq mqraqil Greece (Snpeyyah tiping Asia), sediq  Pangti Greece mi sediq Tunarac Sereys Greece mniq 20 th pnrdingan cida u hbaraw bay mtmay. Niyi ka alaw Greece mi Turkey ddha dha sediq psriyux, mniq iyax niyi cida, hmrinas 120 knbkiyan hiyi sediq sinjya Tongcngkyo sediq mqraqil u kndadax Turkey thdil Greece, 638,000 hiyi sediq tnpusu mniq Greece Makedon sng. Mniq Bulgaria mi Makedon konghekwo u niqan tikuh ini khbaraw Sediq Tnpusu minjoku, binaw ini klayi khnu knhbrawan ka hiyi daha. Seyhu ka muda smpu cida u pkla, kngkawas 2001, tnpusu mniq kcka Bulgaria ka 3408 hiyi u, wana 86 hiyi ka Bulgaria Makedon (Blagoevgrad co) pkla dhiya nanaq ka sediq Greece; kiya mi Makedon konghekwo kngkawas 2002 muda smpu knhbrawan hiyi sediq cida, wana 442 hiyi sediq ka pkla sa sediq Greece.

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Makedon minjoku mniq quri lnglungan dha snbeyhing minjokumi mi kkla dha nniqan lnlingay u ida pkla dhiya ka ‘Sediq Makedon’ (Kari Makedon: Македонци, Makedonci). Dhiya ka tu2 knhbrawan hiyi sediq na minjoku. Alaw hbaraw tnpusu nniqan dha ka sediq Slavic, kiya mi splawa dha ‘Sediq Makedon Slavic’ mi ‘Sediq Slavic Makedon’ uri (ji Greece: Σλαβομακεδόνες, "Slavomakedones"). Spuda kngkawas 2002 ka muda smpu knhbrawas hiyi sediq cida, dhiya ka pusu balay minjoku Makedon konghekwo, ya bay niqan 130 knbkiyan hiyi sediq ka pkla dhiya ka sediq Makedon. Spuda kngkawas 2001 muda snburah bay smpu knhbrawan hiyi sediq ka Bulgaria u, Bulgaria Blagoevgrad co u niqan 3,117 hiyi sediq ka pkla dhiya ka sediq Makedon. Pnklan Seyhu Bulgaria ka knhbrawan hiyi sediq Makedon u niqan 5,071 hiyi, psdkanun ka Greece Makedon ka sediq Makedon u ini hari khbaraw kiya. Kngkawas 1951 cida, mn1 dha ngalan sspuwan dha ka dnuwi dha pusu kari uri ka Greece, nhdanan cida ka pkla, niqan 41,017 hiyi sediq pusu kari dha ka kari Slavic, hbaraw balay u wa mniq Greece na ssiyaw Tuiwil Makedon. Ana so pkla dmuwi pusu kari Slavic ka dhiya, binaw spuda pnskanan kkluwanan kari u malu malun kcka kari Bulgaria mi kari Makedon ka kari srngaw dha. Dhiya u to bay so pkla dhiya nanaq u sediq Greece ka dhiya, ana so niqan duma ini khbaraw sediq u mniq quri pnkla dha qnhlangan dha ka Makedon mi Bulgaria. Mniq kngkawas 1989 mnuda smpu knhbrawan hiyi sediq ka Albania cida, ya bay niqan 5000 hiyi Albania kongmin pa pkla sediq Makedon ka dhiya.

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Bulgaria na sediq Makedon u pkla dhiya nanaq ka ‘Sediq Macedonia’ na sediq Bulgaria (Kari Bulgaria: Mакедонци, Makedontsi). Dhiya u rmirih knhbaraw balay hiyi sediq Bulgaria na Makedon, ya bay 37 knbkiyan hiyi sediq, to bay wa mniq Blagoevgrad co. Mniq Albania, Greece mi Makedon konghkwo, duma ini khbrawan hiyi qnpringan u snbeyhing minjoku Bulgaria, ini klayi ka knhbrawan hiyi. Mniq Makedon konghekwo kngkawas 2002 muda smpu knhbrawan hiyi cida, 1,417 hiyi sediq u pkla dhiya ka Bulgaria minjoku. So sklwiun balay, mniq so kngkawas so niyi u, ya bay 60,000 knbkiyan sediq Makedon u wada sinsey mptumal qnlhangan Bulgaria, ya bay niqan 1 knbkiyan ka wada mangal passport Bulgaria. Wada tumal Omong ka Bulgaria u kiya ka psdhu dmudul lnglungan dha. Alaw tumal qnlhangan Bulgaria daw, nsinsey sediq pa kasi ka psdhu matas kingal patas pkla dhiya ka sediq Bulgaria, balay bay u ririh sa wada dha sqada ka biyax dha hnyuwan Sediq Tnpusu.

Sediq Albania ka dxral nniqan hiya 1 pusu minjoku uri. Sediq Albania mniq Makedon konghekwo na tudaya, tuiril dxral tukubeycu nniqan hiya u kiya ka pusu na balay uri, spuda kngkawas 2002 muda smpu knhbrawan hiyi sediq cida, kiya ka knkana Makedon konghekwo na 25.2% hiyi ka dhiya.

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Niqan duma ini khbaraw ka sediq Turkic, sediq Bosniak, sediq Rom, sediq Serbian, sediq Wallachian (Sediq Aromon mi Meykranni-sediq Romania), sediq Egypt, sediq Armenia mi sediq Yodaya (Sayhwati sediq Yodaya mi Greece sediq Yodaya) u malu qtaun mniq Makedon uri.

Pnyahan pnatas(參考資料)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]