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pneasug singcng Ratwoweyya (拉脫維亞行政區劃 )
bgurah pnhiyug sapah Yisu Ricya (里加的新藝術建築)
File:Flickr - Saeima - 4.maijs Saeimā (6).jpg- Sslian pprngagan Ratwoweyya(拉脫維亞議會)
File:Coat of arms of Latvia.svg-Kwohwey(國徽)

Ratwoweyya(拉脫維亞)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:Kuldyga. ventos krioklys, 2006-09-22.jpg-Tglaqi Untapupu(文塔瀑布)

Ratwoweyya Kunghekwo gaga mniq gqian hidaw gsilung Porwotihay, daya hraan hidaw klwaan Owcow,ida nklwaan gsilung Porwotihay uri. Daya, huac, hraan hidaw o mskiyig dha Aysaniya, Ritawwan ni Erwos, gqian hidaw o msipaw gsilung Porwotihay dha Jweyteyn,hunac hraan hidaw o mslutuc ka dha bhgay Erwos.Hbragan seejiq Ratwoweyya ga niqan 1,934,379 iyi(hngkawas 2018),lnbangan  dxgal dha o niqan 64,589 km2(24,938 sq mi), karac o nmuxul mgsilung.

Cngc tic Ratwoweyya klwaan ga ida mincu Yihwey kunghec,pnhiyug hngkawas 1918,Ricya ka pusu alang dha.Mskingal klwaan ka Ratwoweyya;kana ka klwaan o wada snakan 119 singcng cyuyu,niqan 109 ka Ccs ni 9 ka Csyas Quri saw kari Ratwoweyya  o ida mduuy kari Porwoti,ida wana hiya ka gaga mniq nkari Yinow, kari klwaan ka kari Ratwoweyya,ida pusu bi kari ka kari Ratwoweyya ksun;Kingal o  kari Ekwo o gaga dha djiyun bi uri. Manu ka seejiq Riwoniya ksun o seejiq klwaan uri,ida mduuy nkari Wuraar na kari Riwoniya, ida wada mdudul mphing ka kari nii da.

File:Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores, Riga, Letonia, 2012-08-07, DD 01.JPG-Waycyawpu(外交部)

Ratwoweyya ga ida nkwoci cuc cngyueyn kwo ka Peyow Rishwey,Peytasiyang kungyuey cuc,Owcow weyyueynhwey,Reynhekwo,Cingcihecow ni Facancuc,Porwoihay kwocya rishwey,Kwocihwopi cuc,Peyow Towc Yinghang ni Owcowancyueyn ni Hecow cuc. Hngkawas 2014 siida,Ratwoweyya ga mniq knrana sjiqan spgan o tg49,ida egu nangal na hbangan uri,klwaan nii ga mduuy hbangan qyqaya Ratwoweyya Rate,bitaq hngkawas 2014 musa teumal Owyueyncyu,Owyueyn ka bgurah hbangan klwaan dha da.

Ris(歷史)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:Riga Central Market (6).JPG-Kskbbrigan uuqun na Cyari(里加中央市場 )
File:Aizkraukles Banka-facade.jpg-Ayicqerawqerays Yinghang(阿伊茲克勞克萊斯銀行)

Brah na Kungyueyn hngkawas 3000,rudan seejiq Ratwoweyya ga mnniq hraan hidaw Porwotihay han,tnealang hiya ga niqan hupo psryuxan dha xiluy.

Ana nanaq wada 10 kbkuy hngkwasan mslutuc ka seejiq tnealang ni knglangan nganguc o,ida wada msupu Owcow Sehwey 12 Sci da. Hici hari 12 Sci, tgkingal empgarang kari Utux Baraw o snkulan Cyawcung,miyah dhuq truma yayung Tawcyawahe muda pgarang kari.Kiya ni mdudul phiyug pndhugan yahun seejiq embarig Tekwo ni empgarang kari Utux Baraw.

Kiya ka kiya ni ida ini snhiyi Citucyaw ka tnealang hiya. Kiya ni wada skulan Ratwoweyya ka Jarman sccyun, mangal puniq, yayu iyux bi priyux smhiyi Citucyaw seejiq tnealang hiya. Siida ga seejiq Qerwoniya, seejiq Semeycyareyn, seejiq Ratecyareyn, seejiq Serwoniya ida tna pnhiyug klwaan dha ni syukun na ka miyah mrmux seejiq. Kiya ka kiya ni prajing Sci 13 siida, ida seejiq Tekwo ka kmlawa Ratwoweyya saying ni hunac Aysaniya.

Flag of Latvia.svg

Bukuy do mniq nngalan dha ticyu phiyug klwaan Sccyun ,kiya kaklaan saw Mariyati uxay uri o Riwoniya.Hici do maa pusu bi kaka mawyi ka Ricya,hngkawas 1281 do teumal Hansa Tungmung.Sci 16 mnhdu ka ppais Qewoniya do mhiyug ka Quarran kungkwo,kiya ni maa Poran, Ritawwan Reynpang na Cuhowkwo ni nklwaan dha da.Sci 17 do Quarran kungkwo ga mniq Feycow,Meycow dnii phiyug Cminti ksun.

Sci 18 siida,Ekwo ga kndadax baga Jweyyeyn Tikwo ni Poran,Ritawwan Reynpang mangal kana ka dxgal Ratwoweyya.Ppais paru tgkingal ka knglangan siida,nngalan Tekwo ka Ratwoweyya, mnhdu ka ppais tgkingal nii do, manu ka Ratwoweyya ga wada mmurux nanaq jiyax 18 idas 11 hngkawas 1918 ka Ratwoweyya,Kiyaka kiya ni Ppais paru tg2 ka knglangan siida, manu ka Ratwoweyya wada ngalan ga Sureyn duri, stumal dha cyamung Kunghekwo.

Idas 6 hngkawas 1941 do mspais dungan ka SuTe, Nacwey daya citwancyun Tekwo ga Tnais balay ini dha baka ka Sureyn cyuntwey ngalan dha ka kana ka Ratwoweyya da.Nacwey Tekwo ga iyux na ngalun kana ka klwaan Porwotihay,spuan na Awstinran Cungtu Syacyu kana ka Ratwoweyya ni Ritawwan, Aysaniya ni duma na Bhgay Erwos. Hngkawas 1944 tutuy ni brinah musa kmsiyuk Tekwo ka Sureyn, ngalan na ka Ratwoweyya.Mnhdu ka ppaias tg2 do manu ka Ratwoweyya ga wada klwaan Sureyn dungan bitaq hngkawas 1980 siida.

Paah bi hngkawas 1980 do manu ka Sureyn o prajing kmpriyux cngc daha da, nii ga kika psbiyax prana murux ka Ratwoweyya yuntung ksun.Jiyax 21 idas 8 hngkawas 1991 do ida mntxal pgarang rmngaw saw murux nanaq ka Ratwoweyya,

manu ka Kwowu weyyueynhwey Sureyn ga ida rmngaw nanaq uri da, balay bi murux nanaq ka Ratwoweyya msa. Paah bi murux do manu ka Ratwoweyya ga,kmbiyax bi pkmalu luban dha ka kkgan gisu gqian hidaw na klwaan, kiya ni wada teumal Owmung ni Peyyuey.

Jiyax 7 idas 10 hngkawas 2006, muda mgaaw ka Yihwey.Jnmintan mangal 23/100 tleengan, Ryutang ni Nungmin Reynmung o mangal 18 tleengan,bgurah staytang o mngal 18 tleengan, Hesey skatang o mngal 17 tleengan,manu ka tgkingal tang ni Ratwoweyya elug pspung Reynmung,Cukwo ni Cyow Reynmung,kseupu Ratwoweyya Jncyueyn tang ga ida mneangal 10 tleengan,8 tleengan ni 6 tleengan.Jnmintang,Ryutang ni Nungmin Reynmung,Ratwoweyya tgkingal tang ni Ratwoweyya elug pspung Reynmung ni,Cukwo ni Cyow Reynmung pshiyug Reynhe cngfu,Aycyaars.Qarweytis plutuc mqpah Cungri jiyax 31 idas 5 hngkawas 2007,Yihwey ga msgaaw Cungtung,Waarcis.Caterayars ka mangal cungtung.

cngc(政治)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Rifacikow Ratwoweyya ga kingal yueync na Ratwoweyya yihwey(Saeima), niqan 100ka tleengan yiyueyn, ida mn4 hngkawas o muda mgaaw k aka kwomin. Manu ka Cungtung Ratwoweyya mnuda Yihwey mgaaw kiya,mn4 hngkawas o mgaaw.Cungtung ka smkagul Cungri ni Neyke Ratwoweyya,ida snhiyi balay towpeyaw Yihwey uri. Singcng cikow o ida pnqpruhan Cungri ni Neyke . Dsaw nii Cngc tisi o brah bi mnpruq siida,ida tna niqan ka Ratwoweyya da.

pneasug singcng(行政區劃)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Paah jiyax 1 idas 7 hngkawas 2009 siida, snakan 9 csyas(kari Ratwoweyya: pilsēta),109 Ccs(novads)ka Ratwoweyya.

Tiri(地理)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Gaga hraan hidaw Porwotihay ka Ratwoweyya,mniq pingyueyn Tungow,nPeyow.Daya o mslutuc dha Aysaniya,hunac o mslutuc dha Ritawwan, hraan hidaw o mslutuc dha Erwos,hunac hraan hidaw o mslutuc dha Bhgay Erwos.Kana ka ayus klwaan o niqan 1862km,kana ka knbragan kiyig gsilung o niqan 531km.Kana ka klwaan o breenux,haypa o 78m, 3/4 na haypa o gaga truma 120m,dxgal o msteetu(hraan hidaw ni gqian hidaw) ni pingyueyn.Pusu bi yayung o niqan yayung Tawcyawa,yayung Riyeyrupey ni Keeya.

Cingci(經濟)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

hbangan qyqaya(貨幣)

Jiyax 28 idas 6 hngkawas 1993 siida, masug ni pduuy Rate klwaan nanaq. masug ni pduuy Rate klwaan nanaq. Jiyax 1 idas 1 hngkawas 2014 do kika balay bi teumal Owyueyn da.

djiyun nkiya(自然資源)

Niqan qbulic dxgal ni btunux bhgay rulung, bnaqig sying,skaw dnii qyqaya ssalu sapah.Rnaaw bbuyu o niqan 38%.

leexan ndaan cingci(經濟簡史)

Tg2 ppais ka knglangan siida,cingci Ratwoweyya ga wada sliqan paru balay.Kiya ka kiya o yasa malu ka pusu cingci ,kiya ni mnhdu ppais do ini biyaw miyah duri ni mrana. Hngkawas 1980 do manu ka ngalan kungyey o mabang mrana 44 pey dh aka hngkawas 1940,nngalan nungyey o mrana 40%dha ka hngkawas 1940.

Hngkawas 1988 kana ka nngalan kung nungyey o niqan 133.25 hpucing Rupu,nangal kwomin o 72.88 hpucing Rupu.Hngkawas 1989 kana ka nngalan kung nungyey ni nangal  kwomin ga mabang mrana 2.1% ni 4.1%,136.04 hpucing Rupu ni 76 hpucing Rupu.Hngkawas 1990 kana ka nangal kwomin o niqan kana ka Sureyn na 102%,mniq kana Sureyn tg11,ida paru mniq kana ka pnrana cingci sweyping Sureyn uri.

Murux nanaq ka Ratwoweyya do, laxan na ka suqi mssli smudal na cihwa cingci  nkiya Sureyn, priyux mquri bbrigan cingci na pusu cingcicng ce. Quri saw kpriyux cingci.

Spuun ka kana do, knpryuxan cinci Ratwoweyya ga pusu bi o kika pryu pryuxan kana ka brah Sureyn siida mkray ni smudal na euda cinci, hici do phiyug saw gqian hidaw Owcow na cpuncuyi sbbarig cinci. Snnii, kndadax murux siida, tna pgkla kana ka quri saw knpryuxan dnuuy qyqaya, muda nnaku nanaq, mrawah bbrigan dnii egu bi Gaya  faryu ni faring ksun. Kiya ni mduuy kingal lntudan uda, pusu na o kika seuda cinci mquri bbrigan cinci priyux muda euda nii.

Ida malu hari ka pusu kung nungyey. Kungyey ga mniq tru klwaan Porwotihay na tgkingal, tg2 o nungyey. Mniq nkiya na Sureyn siida, kungyey ga ini sliq xiluy na cici smalu mangal hangan. Pusu snalu o kika teynci, wuseynteyn, qyqaya teync ni Yiryaw cisey, bqanun dha nkiya Sureyn duma na Kunghekwo sluun dha qyqaya sbarig dha dhiya dungan. Mnara ka syumuyey, nnangal dha o mniq nungyey o niqan 68% brihan na.

Murux nanaq do, prajing mdudug nhiya nanaq ni bbrigan cingci, masug hbangan klwaan nanaq, prajing muda bgurah na sweysow cngce ni murux djiyun hbangan. Yasa wada sliqan ka nkiya Sureyn na nkiya pnluban mawyi, pnyahan biyax ni duma na ptmay brigan qqyaya o wada mqriqu balay, mneelih paru ka snalu dha qyqaya. Bitaq hngkawas 1994 do cingci dha ga kika mtutuy duri. Paah hngkawas 1991 siida, tnunan cingci kwomin Ratwoweyya ga wada mllug paru bi, qpahun quri saw fuwusing ga shjilan na o mniq kana ka kwomin cingci o paah hngkawas 1990 na 31% mrana dhuq hngkawas 1994 na 51%.

Yasa nniqan na quri saw paru tyawqung cngce wada qneuqu, hngkawas 1995 na rbagan miyah ka cinjung weyci ksun, kana ka knglangan o paru na sangyey yinghangPorwotihay yinghang pgarang rmngaw saw mduk nami rhngun da, kiya ni ptutuy na cingci ga gaga yahan mphing dungan. Phiyug idas 12 hngkawas 1995 ka bgurah cngfu do, embiyax bi pdudug krana ngalan, duri ni kmbiyax bi miyah mlutuc dha Erwos ni duma na murux kwosyey klwaan nkiya cingci mawyi dungan. Hngkawas 1996 do kwomin cingci mkala cikuh, kana ka ngalan ruwan klwaan o niqan 50 hpucing meyyueyn, wada mrana 2.5% dh aka snkawas.

Nungyey (農業)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Hngkawas 1996,nngalan dha Nungyey,yumuyey ni Snrinyey ga mniq kwomin sngcan ga kana niqan 8.7%.Kana ka klwaan ga sdalih 1/3 na hbragan seejiq o gaga mniq alang tndxgal,niqan 17% seejiq o muda qmpah nungyey.Phuma quri saw stngi, yama,teyncay, sryaw ni bunga quru. Pusu bi syumuyey o biyuq unuh,hiyi dha djiyun na yangsyuyey,dmanga dapa ni babuy.Mrana ka Yangfungyey.Bitaq prajing hngkawas 1995 do pnhiyug 64,264 qpruhan tnsapah nungyey cingci,ska na 319 klgan nungyey ciyey ga niqan 79 qpruhan ka mnhdu nhiya nana.Kingal hngkwasan knkingal seejiq ga mnangal buyuq unuh 387 kg, bunga quru 404 kg, smugi stngi o 348 kg.

Kungyey (工業)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Hngkawas 1996 siida nnangal dha ga mniq kwomin sngcan o niqan 27.8%.pusu kleegan kungyey o niqan :Teync canpin, cici ccaw,snalu uuqun, cingkung, tminin, qyqaya ssalu sapah, hwakung, snalu qqhuni dnii.

Ryuyow (旅遊)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Miyeystura kungyueyn( kska ris Ricya),alang sbiyaw Ricya, kiyig gsilung Yowarmara,Sikuta ni Caysis rrigan,Minsu Powukwan nganguc,Rungtareykung, sluan sinaw picyow Artaris(Aldaris), sluan cyawqeri Rayyima(Laima).

Cyuns (軍事)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Jiyax 23 idas 8 hngkawas 1991 do prajing qmpuruh cyuntwey,idas 11 do phiyug kwofangpu.Biyax kwofang ga ida qnpruhan Ru, hay, qungcyun ni kwomin weytwey.Brah hngkawas 2006 han o muda Yiwu pingyi, idas 1 hngkawas 2007 do prajing muda cyuntwey cyeyhwa.Qmita nanaq lnglungan kmiyah, cyuntwey ni sping ga pkdhug matas 3 bitaq 5 hngkawas na patas fuyi.

snkulan Yiraqe puping Racyun (拉軍派駐伊拉克步兵營)

Cyawtung Yunsu (交通運輸)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Elug rulu qrngul: Kana ka knbragan o 2,347,000M, ska na 270,000M o mteyncihwa elug rulu qrngul. Elug rulu: knbragan nklwaan elug rulu o 20,227,000M. Elug asu: Knbragan yayung ruwan klwaan o 350,000M. Pusu bi sngayan asu o niqan Uncpiars, icya ni Riyeypaya. Elug sapah skaya: niqan Ricya, Uncpiars, Riyeypaya tru sngayan sapah skaya kklwaan.

Hangqung kungs Rayow Porwitihay, Hangqung kungs “Ratecyate”, Hangqung kungs “Ratepas” dnii tru Hangqung kungs. Hangqung kungs Rayow Porwitihay(AIR BALTIC)ga pnhyugan hngkawas 1995, ida wana hiya ka hangqung kungs kklwaan Ratwoweyya, klwaan o mduuy 99.8%. Ida elug rulu qrngul ni elug asu ka pusu bi ruwan Ratwoweyya.

Elug tnealang: Kungkung yunsu situng Ratwoweyya ga niqan rulu Kungcyaw, niqan xiluy rulu deynki ni ungac xiluy rulu deynki. 5:30—00:30 ka sleelug niya, duma na elug o patas hidaw 22:30 do ini leelug. Papa rulu do kika marig patas ppanan, 0.2 Rate ka pila sbgay. Ddaun elug o ini dungus mkla, tgaan rulu ni ppanan rulu o wana prajing ni dhqan ka bntasan na. Ppanan haya o mrdax msama deynki.

hbragan seejiq ni Cungcyaw (人口和宗教)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

kingal nanaq puping Racyun (拉軍特種步兵 )
Patas bntasan:Freedom monument (Riga) 20180808.jpg
snkrayan lnglungun Cyow gaga mniq Ricya (位於里加的自由紀念碑)
「Rupjmaize」nkiya meypaw mqalux mugi Ratwoweyya (拉脫維亞傳統的黑麥麵包)

Kana hbragan seejiq o 206.7kbuhug(hngkawas 2011), seejiq Ratwoweyya ga niqan 62.1%, seejiq Erwos o niqan 26.9%, seejiq bhgay Erwos o niqan 3.3%, rahuq na do niqan seejiq Poran, seejiq Ritawwan, seejiq Uqeran dnii. Ida niqan snhiyan dha kana ka dhiya, wana 7% ka musa prhulan kjiyax. Teycucyaw o 50 kbuhug hiyi Rute cung sincyaw o 45 kuhug iyi seejiq, Tung Cngcyaw o 35 kbuhug hiyi seejiq, manu ka Ratwoweyya ga hbragan dqrijil ni dsnaw o ida ini bi ktna, hbaraw bi ka dsnaw dha ka sqrijil, yabi wada hari 18% ka ini dha ktna.

Teumal Owmung do hbaraw bi mbbiyax wada miying qpahun Owcow kleegan klwaan, maku asi keungac 20% ka hbragan seejiq, emprajing hngkawas 2018 do ida wana 192 kbuhug hiyi ka ssiijiq da. [21]

uxay nkungming (非公民問題)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Mnhdu prngagan jiyax 15 idas 10 hngkawas 1991 na Ratwoweyya pusu bi Suweyay”quri brnahun ka Kungmincyueyn Kwomin Ratwoweyya ni Kweyhwa pusu Yueynce”, nii ka quri “uxay Kungmin” dnii snarux tunux. Msa ka rngagan kari, wana mntucing rah bhngkawas 1940 na seejiq Ratwoweyya ni lutuc na o kika dungus bi niqan hangan na klwaan Ratwoweyya.Hmrinas 70 kbuhug hiyi seejiq, sdalih kana k hbragan seejiq na 30%, ida ungac hangan na Ratwoweyya kada.

Kndhug hngkawas 1994 kwocifa ga niqan nanaq slug na pteumal klwaan, paah jiyax 1 Idas 2 hngkawas 1995 siida prajing uda nii. Jiyax dnii ga wana ciway na uxay Kungming ka tduwa srwaun muda elug nii, brinah mangal hangan klwaan dungan. Mnrngaw kana ka sjiqan hngkawas 1998 o, emptxal smalu ka Kwocifa Ratwoweyya, kiya ni mangal nuda pspung knklaan kari ,Ris ni Syeynfa do, kika tdwaun mangal hangan  klwaan dungan. Kiya ka kiya ni hbaraw bi mrudan hari seejiq Erwos ga, yasa knlwaan Sureyn ini kmsluhay kari Ratwoweyya, uxay uri o wada ka malu bi slhayan dni, mqriqu ka smluhay kari Ratwoweyya da. Msa ka snpgan dha, ida hbaraw bi ka wada hmrinas 60 hngkwasan seejiq. Kiya ni paah jiyax 1 idas 9 hgnkawas 1995 siida, wada slihan ka qriqu pspngan kari uxay Kungmin da.

Hngkawas 1995 do pnrngagan gaya msdhug nniqan hangan uxay Kungmin ksun.

Waycyaw (外交)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Cunghwa minkwo hngkawas 1936 siida , mnluban kungsci na waycyaw ka dha Ratwoweyya, kiya ka kiya ni hngkawas 1940 siida wada teumal Sureyn ka Ratwoweyya do, pnluban waycyaw dha klwaan o wada ungac da. hngkawas 1991 do Ratwoweyya ga wada phiyug msluban waycyaw ka dha Cunghwa Jnmin Kunghekwo da. Taywan ga hngkawas 1992-1994 siida mnhiyug pnluban Cungrings ka dha Ratwoweyya.

Pnyahan pnatas (參考資料)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]