Kazakhstan

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Flag of Kazakhstan
Flag of Kazakhstan-Hasako konghoko kwoci (哈薩克斯坦共和國國旗)

Kazakhstan(哈薩克斯坦)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Gaga kska Yacow ka Kazakhstan, 48 00 N, 68 00 E ka gaga na nniqan.

Kana ka knlbangan na o 2,724,900 sq km(hangan na o Tg9)(knlbanga dxgal o 2,699,700 sq km, knlbangan qsiya o 25,200 sq km).

Kana ka sejiqun o niqan 18,360,353 hiyi.

Gaga Astana ka pusu alang paru, jiyax 16 idas 12 ka jiyax skrayan klwaan.

Manu ka dxgal Kazakhstan ga wada sugan 77.40% ka dxgal qpahan, 1.20% ka dxgal bbuyu, rahuq dxgal do niqan 21.40% na.

Bukung klwaan ta sayang o kiya ka Almazbek Atambayev, pnaah hngkawas2011 idas 12 jiyax 1pnrajing kmlawa klwaan.

File:Emblem of Kazakhstan latin.svg-Kwohwey.(國徽)
File:Kazakhstan (orthographic projection).svg-Ida nkiya nniqan lnglingay(自然地理位置)

cinkhulan sa knita’ sa brbiru’

Hasako konghoko (哈薩克斯坦共和國)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Hasako konghoko(Kari Hasako: Қазақстан Республикасы / Qazaqstan Respýblıkаsy; kari Orosiya: Республика Казахстан; kari Ingkoku: Republic of Kazakhstan, plwanan dha Hasako(Kari Hasako: Қазақстан / Qazaqstan; kari Orosiya: Казахстан; kari Ingkoku: Kazakhstan, koka sunca hmqatar co, hmqatar Oco mi Asiaco tkdha co, pusu na u wa mniq tukcka tudaya Asia, mniq tuiril yayung Uraar ttipiq dxral dha u wa mniq Oco.

Kana knrbangan dxral koka Hasako pa 2,727,300 pinghwang kongri, knbeyki bay neyru koka kana jeynseykay, tumngari knbeyhing koka kana jeynseykay.

Dmudul keyjay quri tukcka Asia ka Hasako, pdkanan kana tukcka Asia cyuyu knkana sngcan congcu niya u 60%, quri so gasoring, kuki ida nkiya kongyey ka pusu balay, niqan knttuku bay ka kwangcan cuyeyn.

Hasako pa quri so bungka u mniq tkcka Asia Mongku bungkacweyn knbeyhing koka.

Seyhu Hasako u pskngalan dha mincu, susu, pnwaya pskingal syeyncng konghoko ka Hasoho, kiya mi niqan ou kluwanan bungka ican.

Tudaya, tuiril Hasako u msqapah dkoka Orosiya, tunarac hunac u msqapah Cyokoku, turahuc u msqapah Ucupyeyko, Ciarcusu mi Tukuman.

Tuiril daya u lmutuc Rihay, Rihay u niqan 2,964 kongri ka hayanseyng.

Hnyuwan Hasako pa kiya ka knkana brnux, mdngu brnux sspriq, tudaya wasaw qumi qqhuni, kkuayu, dwiyaq, sancyawco, llmiqu mi mbbuyu, ndanan smpu knhbrawan hiyi Hasako kngkawas 2014 cida u niqan 1,800 knbkiyan hiyi sediq, binaw knbeyhing bay ka dxral koka Hasako, koka kntikuh bay mitu sediq, kingal pinghwang kongri u 6 balay hiyi sediq mniq.

Sotu u Nuar-Sutan; ini knpriyux hangan brah cida han u Asutana ka hangan smudan han.

Mniq kngkawas 1997 brah cida han u dmuwi knbeyhing bay alang mkbrnux Aramutu ka Sotu han.

Rikisi knbeyhing bay dxral Hasako pa kiya ka tlanan kana yomu minjoku, Cngcisuhan u 13 seyki ka mnangal dxral niyi, wada nMongku tiko daw knpriyux da, muda mtdiyan ka kcka tiko nanaq da mi, hiti daw wada miyah bawa tnualang yomu minjoku ka biyax dungal.

16 seyki cida, wada pkrana ka Hasako, wada mubeyki, kcka, tiping tturu yucu.

18 seyki daw prading miyah Hasako brnux sspriq ka sediq Orosiya, dhuq 19 seyki kcka cida, wada nOrosu tiko ka pnhangan dha Hasako.

Mnuda Okwo koming ka kngkawas 1917, thiti daw mnuda mccbu ka kcka nanaq Orosiya, tndxral Hasako u mnuda mnou knpriyux, Hasako Suweyay sohuy cuyi konghoko u pnhiyu kngkawas 1936, wada mnSuryeyn ka dxral dha.

Kngkawas 1932, mnuda mqraqil beyhing bay uka uuqun, nniqan dha hiya u 150 knbkiyan hiyi sediq ka wada mrdang.

Wada mkrhak kngkawas 1991 cida pa, Hasako ka thiti bay muda pusa kari dukuricu ka Hasako ida ntumal Suryeyn konghoko.

Muwaya bay pnhiyu dha Soto u Nuarsutan Nacaarpayeyhu cida pa hiya nanaq ka lmutuc mangal biyax bukung, dhuq kngkawas 2019 u hiya nanaq ka pusa kari mpsangay.

Hasako u mbiyax bay pkrana keyjay dha, quri so suhwa kongyey.

Kcka Hasako pa niqan 131 kluwanan minjoku, kiya knkana ka Hasako joku(niqan 65.5% knhbrawan hiyi sediq), sediq Orosiya, sediq Doicu, sediq Tatan mi Weyuarcu.

Isurankyo snhiyan u pdkanan 70% knkana knhbrawan dha sediq Hasako, kiya mi Kiristokyo u pdkanan 26%, seyhu Hasako u smruwa ptrawah ana manu snhiyan, binaw hantay seyhu ka bukung dsnhiyan u qrapun dha kiya.

Kari Hasako ka ngalan dha srngaw kari seyhu, kari Orosiya u mniq singcng mi cikwan u mtna so snrwanan seyhu ka kari niyi.

Babaw dukuricu daw wada mkoka dukuricu kwosyey cngyeyn, kngkawas 2009 prading daw wada mTucyey gikay cngyeynkwo, kngkawas 2001 idas 6 diyax 15 wada mpnsluyan Sanghay hocwo cucu cngyeynkwo.

Mniq Tucyey-kcka kari Huyku pa, dungus na “Hasako” u: dukuricu tnpusu, mtrawah qcahur, tura Oco mi Asiya tukubeycu bungka yomu minjoku uri.

“Stan”, dungus na u “tnsapah”, “dxral, sanan mssli”, manu so kiya, “Hasakosutan” pa wisu tmiyu nniqan mssli “Hasako joku” .

Saya daw “Hasako joku” sunca pa wisu tmiyu knkan mniq kcka Cyokoku, Orosiya, Ucupyeyko, Hasako mi nniqan duma alang Hasako joku.

“sediq Hasako sutan”(Kari Hasako: қазақстандық; kari Orosiya: казахстанец) quri so smnlanan suncahaya pa, kiya ka knkana mniq kcka kongmin mniq Hasako.

Kngkawas 2014 idas 2 diyax 6, soto Hasako Nuarsutan Nacaarpayeyhu mtqita dayxyo cida, keyngi pryuxun ka kcka hangan koka “Sutan” sbrahun “Yeyryey”.

So kiya snbrahun daw hangan koka mniq kari Hasako ka mniq kcka Hasako u dungus na pa kiya ka“koka sediq Hasako” .

Rikisu(歷史)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Hasako u kndadax Smudan tasil jiday daw tna niqan sediq ka mniq hini.

Burah tasil jiday daw prading pkrana qpahun platac tnbuwan, karac tnualang hiya, hnyuwan dxral u mndungus bay kndusan yomu.

Qnita dha kawku sweycya pa mniq nniqan knrbangan bay brnux sspriq hiya ka dsediq u wada mndungus bay tpthiyi ka dapa dmay, sediq Suciday ka muwaya bay tnpusu mnniq tukcka Asia.

Brah kongyeyn 3 seyki dhuq brah kongyeyn 1 seyki, tukcka Hasako u hana niqan mrahul ka syakay.

Peyyah brah dhuq thiti u niqan mrahul ka quri so Usun, Kangcyu, Aran, Weypan, Tawan yomu cngti.

T6 seyki dhuq t8 seyki pa pnnhiyu dkoka Tucyey Hanko, Tucisu, Kororu.

T8 seyki dhuq tu12 seyki daw, tuiril mi tuiril hunac, tuhunac mi tunarac ka mllutuc tumal dkoka Kosahanko, Ukusuyeyhuko, Cimakohanko mi Cinca ryeynmong.

Cinca ryeynmong cida pa wada msranaq Oco, Arapo pantaw, Ayci ka kari Cinca.

Nhana t13 seyki cida, babaw pnhyuwan ka Mongku tiko, Cngcisuhan u wada na sbuway risaw na qbsuran Sucu ka nniqan Siporiya mi nniqan tukcka Asia, phiyu Cincanghanko.

Nhana tu16 seyki cida, wada mupsnakan Beyhing Yucu, Kcka Yucu, Tiping Yucu turu niyi ka Hanko.

Tu17 seyki cida kcka Asia u knsburah mtutuy taxa mbiyax bay yomu koka—Mongku Cwenkoarhanko

Mnyahan knrmux Cwenkoarhan ka Hasako, Tiping Yucu u snkaun sutwan dmurun Orosiya smruwa ptmay Orosiya; kngkawas 1735 idas 12 Kcka Yucu u wada tumal Orosiya uri, kiya mi wada yahan mddayak Cwenkoarhanko ka Beyhing Yucu.

Binaw kngkawas 1757 cida u wada pkngatun krinah mbiyax bay Cingtiko ka Cwenkoarhanko, kiya mi wada mnCingtiko ka Beyhing Yucu, mniq nhdanan bay taxa Hasakohanko Kohan Kensary wada mrdang kngkawas 1847 daw, balay bay wada pkngatun ka Hasakohanko, Hasako peyyah cida daw prading mtmay Orosiya cumin suuci, dhuq phiyu Arasu cucu konghoko.

Tu19 seyki cida wada muda Mccbu Yapyeyn ka Cingtiko mi dmudul mowic ka biyax koka dha, kiya mi miyah mddayak dxral Beyhing Yucu kngkawas 1864 cida ka Orosiya, kndadax cida daw wada mnOrosiya kana ka dxral Hasako.

Seyji(政治)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:RIAN archive 140800 Signing of Protocol on Establishing Commonwealth of Independent States.jpg(哈薩克境內發表的阿拉木圖宣言正式宣告蘇聯的解體)

“Keyngpo Hasako” muda smalu waya Hasako ka “mincu kiya, uxay nsnhiyan mi mpskingal koka”; dmudul puwaya Sotocu koka konghoko, soto ka koka yeynso, kiya ka dmudul koka mquri kcka mi mquri nganguc cngco cipn hwangcn, kiya mi mniq pnluban kwoci rmirih Hasako knbeyhing bay hnyuwan bukung koka, kiya ka ptura sediq mi pskingal koka cngcweyn, so ini khmti lmlu ka keyngpo, ptura mi sndhu biyax kongmin mi mtrawah.

Spuda keyngpo mi horicu ka pusu, dmuwi rihwa, suhwa, singcnghwa tuturu biyax pnsnakan mi ppwaluk, ppsdhu, ppsbalay ka muru waya muda ddaun dha.

Diyax sqpah soto u 7 kngkawas.

Kngkawas 2007 idas 5 diyax 18, Hasako gikay u wada pdaun ka snbarah smalu waya keyngpo, muway biyax Nuarsutan Nacaaryeyhu u malu snpusal muda lmutuc qpahun soto.

Soto u malu muda psdhu phiyu congri, hukucongri mi waycyaw, ohwang, keyjay, neycng bucyo mi koka ancyeyn ingkay cusi, kiya mi kasi ka srwaun gikay.

Soto u niqan biyax na ini sruwa pndanan hwaan gikay.

Waycyaw(外交)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Pusu tyawmu: Hasako cyeyncyaw ryeypyaw[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Hasako wa nryeynhoko, Oco ancweyn mi hocwo cucu, Oco-Tasiyang hocwo ingkaymi Isuran hocwo cucu(OIC) cngyeynko, kiya mi Peytasiyang kongyey cucu mi Hoping hwopan pnluban cihwa canyuko.

Kngkawas 2010 idas 4 diyax 11 cida, soto Nacaarpayeyhu mi Peyrako Opama mniq kcka Hwasngtun muda hocu anjeyng honghuy, pprngaw pkrana Amirika mi Hasako pnluban canryey hocwo, psdhu kari pkrana swangpyeyn hocwo, kndudul hoanjeyn mi ini krhak mrana, tukcka Asia snbalay, keyjay mrana mi pusucyacu.

Kngkawas 2011 idas 4 cida, lmutuc pprngaw honeng anjeyn pprngawan, mray so BN-350 hwaningru na dnuwi jayryaw anjeynsing, kiya mi kmita malu ndanan pnluban kngkawas 2010 ddha dha.

Hasako pa dukuricu koka kwosyey uri, keyjay hocwo cucu mi Sanghay hocwo cucu cngyeynko, kiya mi msupu Orosiya, Payorosu, Ciarcisu mi Taciko u mniq kngkawas 2000 cida phiyu OYa keyjay kongtongti, knpriyux pnsliyan txtaxa koka so pntnaun kana ka kwanswey, kiya mi so psblayun ka ddaun jiyu mawyi.

Hasako ka muda dmudul kngkawas 2010 Oco anjeyng mi hocwo cucu, Hasako u mniq kngkawas 2012 idas 11 diyax 12 muwaya bay wada uwewan ryeynhoko jncweyn risuhuy cngyeyn.

Kndadax 1991 dukuricu cida, Hasako u dmuwi twohwang waycyaw cngco(kari Hasako: көпвекторлы сыртқы саясат), miying mniqa ddha beyhing koka-Orosiya mi Cyokoku, kiya mi Amirika mi knkaka sihwang sucyey koka smmalu pntna pnluban waycyaw, Orosiya u mniq Hasako tukcka hunac, knbarux ya bay 6,000 pinghwang kongri ddiyun Peykonu hangtyeyn hwasocang, hwasocang niyi pa kiya ka nniqan ppusa sucyey muwaya bay mapa sediq taykong cihwa, Suryeyn taykongso pawhongsweyhaw taykongso mi hopinghaw taykongcan.

Cyunsu(軍事)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:Kazakhstan Republican Guard.JPEG(哈薩克共和國衛隊)

Biyax cyunsu Hasako u lmutuc Suryeyn biyax ucwang Tuarci sutancyuncyu ka seiyah dha, wada mangal Suryeyn tu40 cyun mi tu17 cyun duma mpcaping.

Hasako butay u kiya knkana:rucyun(20,000 hiyi), haycyun(3,000 hiyi), kongcyun(12,000 hiyi) mi kohwangbu(4,000 hiyi), kiya mi niqan ka 31,000 ka cwencyunsu jnyeyn.

Nniqan(地理)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:IMG 7431-Sharyn canyon.jpg(位於天山北方的查恩峽谷)

Kana knrbangan dxral Hasako pa 2,724,900 pinghwan kongri, kiya ka knkana jeynseykay knbeyhing bay neyru koka, lipax dxral u tubaraw ka tunarac mi turuma ka tuiril, tuiril ka Turan truma dxral mi Rihay kngahu ucilung turuma dxral, tuiril daya mi tudaya u niqan brnux Orosiya, tuiril brnux Siporiya lntudan brnux.

Tukcka ka Hasako cyoring, tunarac mi tunarac hunac ka ddwiyaq, kiya ka Pamiar daya brnux lntudan mquri tudaya.

Pusu nniqan Hasako u wa mniq Asia, mniq tuiril ddwiyaq tudu Uraar u na quri tunarac Ocokiya.

Pusu beyhing alang mkbrnux u kiya kana ka Nuarsutan, Aramutu, Karakanta, Simuknto, Atoraw mi Osukomn.

Pusu bay qqsiya u kiya kana ka langu Paarsu, langu Cisang.

Msupu Ucupyeyko psuasu Ucilung mrmun, tuiril u sqapah Rihay(knkana jeynseykay knbeyhing bay langu neyru), knou bay langu qsiya u langu mrmun qsiya.

File:Reserve Karkaraly.jpg(卡拉干達州)

Yayung kcka koka u to bay so yayung qluluy kcka koka nanaq, pusu bay yayung u niqan yayung Oarcisu, yayung Siar, yayung Uraar.

File:Karkaraly National Park 11.jpg(盤羊)

Karac(氣候)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Karac Hasako u kiya knkana cyawcitwan karactarusing, kawas pnyahan qsiya quyux u 1000 hawmi, muxul ka rbawan mi knskuy bay ka misan, binaw dwiyaq lmiqu u tnkawas niqan huda uri, knkingal nniqan u ini bay pntna kana ka karac.

Nuarsutan ka msnul Uranpato ka jeynseykay tudha knskuy sotu, misan u knskuy bay o hmrinas -40℃, knttu niqan t4, t5 ci beyhing bwihur, sotu cuxan Aramutu u knskuy na bay u dhuq -20℃, uka hari msbwihur. Qmuyux mniq nniqan mndngu, dmka mdngu karac u kndudul mlih, dmka mbbuyu mi mbbuyu ka Hasako pa pdkanan knkana dxral koka 60% ka knrbangan da, mniq nniqan mbbuyu ka qnyuxan qsiya knkawas u ini dhuq 100 hawmi, misan daw kndnguwan balay.

Hasako u niqan 10 ka ida nkiya qlhangan cyu mi 10 ka Hasako koka kongyey, muda qmlahang uka hari qtan mi mpkuka ccamac mi ppwalang, qtan bay ppwalang Hasako u hwangsu, tingping pphpahsu, ppixinsu, taycawsu mi ssukaysu, mpkuka ppwalang u kiya ka mnhru nanaq ringgo(Sincyang lmiqu ringgo), lmiqu budo(budu qpiyun sinaw), lmiqu yucinsyang(jukoriyucinsyang) mi uka hari qtan yangcong ucong riyeycyo cong, weyarmoto yeynwey mi Tulipa kaufmanniana.

Qtan bay pujurey ccamac Hasako pa, kiya kana ka huling rang, tanah rqbux, bnaqi rqbux, to rqnux, pan miric(knbering bay qbubur miric suwucong), OYa sori, osagisun mi huda lklic, wisu qlhangun duma.

Bnkuwan patas tanah Hasako bntasan qnlhangan u kiya knkana 125 kluwanan buc tudu ccamac, kiya uri ka ou kluwanan qduda mi pujurey ccamac, kiya mi 404 kluwanan ppwalang, cncyun, cawrey mi tiyi.

Keyjay(經濟)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:Kazakhstan Export Treemap.jpg(哈薩克出口商品組成。)

Hasako ka knkana tukcka Asia knbeyhing bay keyjayti, knmalu bay ka knrana na uri, alaw ka yeynyo cukoryang mi mkala ka neydang gasoring, Hasako u kngkawas 2013 brah cida ida pndkanan 8% ka keyjay cngcangryu, binaw kngkawas 2014 mi kngkawas 2015daw snturung thtur mnara ka keyjay dha, Hasako ka tukingal mnhdu muway saking hbangan koci sbuway brah Suryeyn konghoko, wada knama 7 kngkawas mnhdu muway saking.

Keyjay Hasako u gasoring, gasu, kmari kwang, bawah mey mi qpahun tnbuwan ka pusu nngalan hbangan, cyakongyey mi cingkongyey u mthiti hari kiya.

Knhbrawan hiyi sediq(人口)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Seyhu Hasako u kngkawas 2020 idas 5 knhbrawan hiyi sediq u ya bay 18,776,707 hiyi, kcka niya u pndkanan 46% hiyi ka wa mniq alng mpqpah mhuma ppwalang, pdkanan 54% ka wa mniq alang beyhing mkbrnux.

Kari(語言)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Keypo Hasako u pnwaya kari Hasako ka kari koka, mntna kari Orosiya ka kari dduwiseyhu.

Peyyah wada mkrhak ka Suryeyn daw, Hasako u dmuwi kari Hasako ka patas ddiyun seyhu uri da, binaw knhbrawan sediq u wana dmuwi kari Hasako yuyiwen muda pttuku sduwi dha mndungus bay ppatas, binaw balay bay muda seyri ddaun u ida dmuwi kari Orosiya.

Kngkawas 2011, Wenhwabu Hasako pusa kingal ang, smatang knpriyux kari koka cngco, dmudul pnluban kana sediq Hasako mi seyhu, kiya kana patas dduwi koka u dmuwi kari Hasako kana.

Kari Hasako u tmn kingal kari Tucyey, Hasako u ya bay niqan pdkanan 66.4% ka sediq pa dmuwi tnpusu bay  kari Hasako nanaq.

Seyhu Hasako mniq kngkawas 2015 idas 1 pusa kari mniq kngkawas 2025 brah cida, bnkuwan ppatas kari Hasako pa kndadax jiyi Siriar sbrahun knpriyux jiyi Rating.

Hasako u niqan ka dmuwi ini khbaraw sediq dmuwi kari, kiya ka kari Ucupyeyko, kari Ukoran, kari Weyuar, kari Koarkocu mi kari Tatan, kari Eygo mi kari Tuarci u kndadax mkrhak ka Suryeyn daw, quri so rrisaw ka kndudul dmuwi.

Hasako kyoiku tisi dmuwi kari Hasako mi kari Orosiya mi knhaun dmuwi ka kari Hasako mi Orosiya.

Mniq kngkawas 2019 kcka kari mpsangay ka Nacaarpayeyhu cida, rmngaw ka hiya nxan ka sediq Hasako pa “mpkla rngaw turu kluwanan kari(kari Hasako, kari Orosiya, kari Eygo)” kiya ka sediq mtrawah balay.

Bungka(文化)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:KazMunayGaz.JPG(哈薩克國家石油天然氣公司總部)
File:Turk-Sib railway.jpg(土西鐵路連結中亞及俄羅斯西伯利亞地區)
File:Zenkov cathedral.jpg(東正教是哈薩克的第二大宗教。)

Mniq qnlhangan Orosiya brah cida pa, yomu ka pusu balay ddaun keyjay Hasako, kiya mi mrana bay ka kndkilan bungka.

Isurankyo u sediq Arapo ka mnadas dha miyah nniqan dha hiya tu8 seyki cida, hana prading han u swarang dha Tuarcisutan, kiya mi mquri tudaya pkrana, Samawangcaw ka mbiyax bay mwarang kari uri, sndhu pkrana snhiyan Isurankyo mniq nniqan dha hiya, Cincahanko u tu14 seyki cida pa kndudul swarang dha nniqan dha knkingal alang.

Nniqan bay hhangan sediq Hasako pa kiya knkana Apay Kunanpayeyhu(sediq mbatas uyas), Sapinna Aytipokowa(paycyo undoing), Timasi Kutaipyeyryeykun(hayo mpuyas), Kunnaci Kunnaciyeyweyci Krohuking(bokusing undoing).

Pnyahan pnatas(參考資料)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]