Japan

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Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle [1]
Flag of Japan-Kwoci Tanah tunux. (日本國旗)
File:Imperial Seal of Japan.svg-Kwohway.(國徽)

Japan(日本)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Gaga kska Yacow ka Japan, 36 00 N, 138 00 E ka gaga na nniqan. Kana ka knlbangan na o 377,915 sq km(hangan na o Tg62) (knlbanga dxgal o 364,485 sq km, knlbangan qsiya o 13,430 sq km). Kana ka sejiqun o niqan 126,702,133 hiyi. Gaga Tokyo ka pusu alang paru, jiyax 23 idas 12 ka jiyax skrayan klwaan. Manu ka dxgal Japan ga wada sugan 12.50% ka dxgal qpahan, 68.50% ka dxgal bbuyu, rahuq dxgal do niqan 19% na.

Bukung klwaan ta sayang o kiya ka Akihito, pnaah hngkawas1989 idas 1 jiyax 7pnrajing kmlawa klwaan.

File:Japan (orthographic projection).svg-Ida nkiya nniqan lnglingay. (自然地理位置)

cinkhulan sa knita’ sa brbiru’

Hangan qnhlangan “Tanah tunux”(日本)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kcka kari “Tanah tunux” pa ou kluwanan sspu niya, sspu balay u “Nippon” uxay daw “Nihong”, beytaq saya, seyhu Tanah tunux u ini pwaya mndungus bay sspu niya, so kiya pa ddha kluwanan sspu niyi ka pntnaun dmuwi kana.

Dungus na hangan qnlhangan Tanah tunux pa “Hnranan hidaw”, mniq “Wanyeyci” mi “Yeynsu uyu” kcka u niqan bnatas kana; thiti daw wada ruwan Han bungka, sspu kari niyi u kndadax syuntu knpriyux intu saya.

Rikisi(歷史)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Sycyeyn mi Yeynsu jitay(史前及原史時代)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Klan saya ka qnbsyaqan bay hwasu sediq Tanah tunux pa tbrnahun dhuq 3 knbkiyan kngkawas brah cida.

Kawkuswey saya u sndhu bay pkla, cbiyaw hanpa Tanah tunux pa wana nanaq sediq tnpus kiya mi msngari daw kiya ka kndadax Tunarac hunac Asia mi Tunarac daya Asia thdil miyah Tanah tunux kana mi beytaq mnrimax msupu kana ka txtaxa minjoku.

Nccbiyaw(古代)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Mniq kcka “Patas bntasanTanah tunux” pa, lllqlaqi llutuc Tyeyncaw beyhing Utux ka Snwu Teynoheyka mniq kngkawas sinco smudal bnkuwan sspudiyax idas 1 diyax 1 (Kngkawas brah 660  idas 2 jiyax 11 cida) wada phyun muwaya bay pnrdingan Teynoheyka, kiya mi phiyu qnlhangan Nihong. Jipun saya pa ida dmuwi diyax idas 2 diyax 11 ka ngalan dha diyax mqaras smsung sndhuwan phiyu qnlhangan.

Muhu jitay(幕府時代)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kngkawas 1192 cida, Ucya bukung Yeynraycaw ka phyuwan cngyi Tacyangcyun, phiyu Ryeyncang Muhu, kiya mi mtrawah Muhu tongcu, prading Tanah tunux hmrinas 600 kngkawas sngari ka Muhu jitay.

Suting Muhu puting hiti diyax (kngkawas 1467) muda snturung Ingjn crwan, pnskraya Tana tunux knbbaraw 148 kngkawas ka Cankwo jitay. Kngkawas 1573 cida, Tamingcu Tyeynsincang, kiya ka cida niqan bay rmun na cuho uri, wada na ngalun ka nniqan Suting Muhu Artyaw Yuswo, wada spliwaq qnlhangan Kcka yayung ka Curiyicaw, wada pkngatun ka Suting Muhu, mtmay Antu Tawsan jitay ka Tanah tunux (kngkawas 1573 dhuq kngkawas).

Tikwo jitay(帝國時代)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Qtayi: Nihong tikwo cuyi, Cyokoku knciyuk Tanah tunux mccbu, Tumndha mccbu mi Qnquwan heytay Tanah tunux.

Kngkawas 1867 cida, thiti bay ddiyax Cyanghu Muhu cyangcyun Tecwan Cingsi wada ini baka mi tbrnahun na muway ka biyax qmlahang, spuda Mingcu Teynoheyka ka pusu bay dmudul phiyu burah seyhu, mnhdu ka Cyanghu jitay, sntama cawkaw sngcanri na kongyeyhwa, prading muda kluelu mrana mbiyax qnlhangan mi knrmnan heytay ka Tanah tunux.

Babaw tumndha mccbu jeynseykay daw(二戰以後)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kndadax kngkawas 1945 diyax idas 9 diyax 2 wada ini baka mccbu dhuq kngkawas 1952 idas 4 diyax 28 “Cyocinsan heyey” iyax cida, wada yahan cyunsu canring Mongcyun ka Tanah tunux, Amirika ka pusu bay tnpusu mniq Tanah tunux suringpu (GHQ) qmlahang, muda ptrawah cayhwa cngce, quri so pstuq cupn muda knbeyhing bay psbalay; wada uka kana ka tndxral dha wa mniq nniqan alang qnlhangan icil uri da, wada tnayis pkixun pqlahang heytay seyhu Amirika ka Syawri Yeyncutaw mi Ryocyo (mnCongsng keyng).

21 Seyki (21世紀)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Mtmay 21 seyki nhana prading, spuda bburah sucang cuko ka keyjay Tanah Tunux kiya mi wada mntkeyyaw hari ka Isyeynamey cingci, binaw kngkawas 2008 cida u snturung cinjong haysyaw ka kana jeynseykay, kiya mi Sony, Toyota niqan bay hhangan beyhing kojyo pa wada kndudul song kari bay hbangan kana.

Kngkawas 2009 cida, cucng ka Cumintang mniq tu45 kay Nihong conggiying ging cong seyngkyo cida pa wada ini balay baka, mntxan ptingun dungan, mntxan bay wada malix 54 kngkawas tu1 knbeyhing bay tang hnyuwan. Mn3 kngkawas daw,alaw ka Mincutang pa qnuqu muda mi mniq Tunarac Nihong knbeyhing runu cida ini pndungus ka pnsblayan dha uuda runu, neyke congri tacn u wada snpusal priyux, mumal ka Hutaw hecay dungan wada mntxan snturung mqraqil dungan ka keyjay dha Tanah Tunux, kiya ka ppstutuy Cumintang dungan.

Nniqan Lnlingay(地理)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Tndxral Tanah Tunux pa wa mniq tunarac Oco mi Asia taru, tuiril Taypingyang, pnspuwan quri 3 hucwang cyuntaw (Nihong ryeytaw,  Ryocyo cyuntaw, Ito-Syawriyeyn cyuntaw). Kcka hiya u Peyhaytaw, Cyoco, Pnco mi Sukwo, knlbangan na tndxral   4 knbeyring taw daw 99.37%. Tanah Tunux u wada dha ngalan tunarac Asia uxay daw tunarac daya Asia ka nniqan dha, tudaya u msupu Orosiya, tuiril u msupu Tudaya Hangkoku, Tuhunac Hangkoku, tuhunac u msupu tunarac Cyokoku tayriku mi mksipaw ucilung quri Taiwan, tuhunac u msupu Huyriping mksipaw ucilung mqqita. Pnspuwan kana 6,852 tawyu ka Tanah Tunux, knlbangan tndxral u ya bay 37.8 pinghwang kongri. 75% knlbangan   tndxral pa to bay dwiyaq nniqan cyoring, so kiya Bungan bay mklmiqu, binaw ini hari dungus ngalan tmabun phuma, dxral ngalan tmabun phuma pa 11.1% bay kana tndxral. So kiya knhbaraw hiyi sediq Tanah Tunux pa wa tqapur mniq nniqan mkngahu ucilung, jnko mitu Tanah Tunux mniq tnbkuwan   jeyseykay pa tu37. Bbaraw balay ka tndxral Tanah Tunux, knbbaraw tuhunac mi tudaya pa, tuhunac mi tudaya knbbaraw niya u 3,800 kongri, msdalih hari Awco, Matacyasucya, Amirika.

Kkarac knkingal alang(各地氣候)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Tanah Tunux pa ini bay kntna ka sspac ratuc kkarac. Wada knbeyhing bay dndulan na ucilung, ptura bay kkarac Hayyangsing. Tndxral Tanah Tunux pa Kkarac Yajetay rutuc bwihur ka pusu na bay, binaw alaw tawyu Tanah Tunux u kndadax tuiril hunac mquri tunarac daya mbbaraw balay, tuhunac mi tudaya hmtaring weytu pa ya bay 20°, so kiya kkarac knkingal nniqan qnlhangan u ida so ini bay pntna kana, pusu bay u pnsnakan 6 nniqan kkarac:

  • Kkarac Peyhaytaw: Ini dduli quri quyux bngehur k aka Peyhaytaw, tikuh qnyuxan na quri kiinu alang icil Tanah Tunux. Llbu ka rbawan mi mtltu , bbaraw ka misan mi mskuy bay.
  • Kkaraw Tanah Tunux hayce: Kana tnuayus dha u kiya knkana ka nniqan mkngahu ucilung tuiril Pnco taw. Misan cida daw dndulan Siporiya kawciya, miyuk bwihur tudaya. Kiya mi alaw ka muxul hngak tuyma hayryo mniq misan cida muda Ucilung Jipun kiya mi madas knou bay hngak qsiya, kiya ka knttu niqan knbeyhing bay huda. Rbawan cida u tikuh hari ka qsiya qnyuxan, alaw wa mniq nniqan msbukuy bwihur bwihur rbawan; mncun pcriyu ka bwihur mtilux kiya mi kha bay kntlxan.
  • Kkarac tukcka kawtisu: Kkarac tyeynsing na Neyrusing, mskuy ka misan mi mtltu ka rbawan.Misan mi Rbawan diyan mi kman u ini bay pntna ka kntilux mi knskuy, ini kou quyux.
  • Kkarac Taypingce: Kiya knkana tunarac mkngahu ucilung Pnco, tuhunac Sukwo mi Cyoco knkana nniqan. Rbawan cida u dnlulan bwihur tunarac hunac, mbiyax ka quyux bngehur mi ou ka bwihur beyhing, ini hari phuda ka misan cida.
  • Kkarac Rayhu neyhaysu: Kiya knkana Sanyang tihwang, tudaya Sukwo, Cinci mi Cyoco dumanniqan. Mthidaw kddiyax ka karac, ini kou quyux, ini sangay yahan mddayak knttirux mneyras uciung.   
  • Kkarac tuhunac iril Cutawsu: Kana tnuayus ka Ryocyo cyuntaw. Kkarac mnYajetay ka hini, mtilux bay ka rbawan mi muxul ka misan, knou bay qnyuxan, kiya mi yahan bay rmudaw knbeyhing bwihur.  

Nniqan Tanah Tunux pa kiya ka kana jeynseykay knou bay qsiya qnyuxan, pusu bay knkana ka nniqan Ucilungce na phuda misan, Congsng u idas 5 dhuq idas 7 ka ini sangay msbwihur beyhung, kiya mi rbawan cida dhuq krpuhan cida u knrmux uxay daw msdalih Tanah Tunux ka bwihur beyhing.

Lnlingay ida nkiya(自然環境)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Tanah Tunux pa tuhunac mi tudaya mbbaraw, ptura bay ka ratuc kkarac, qnlhangan ou bay dwiyaq uri. Alaw qnlhangan tawyu ka Tanah Tunux, tnqriyan ucilung kana ka tndxral, kiya mi musa uka hari kndadax nganguc icil burah knudus ka miyah knrmux, msthiyaq taw ka nniqan daw krinah murux nanaq   kndkilan sitong, quri so Syawriyeyn cyuntaw mi Ryokyo cyuntaw pa kndadax nanaq cbiyaw daw krinah mukala nniqan beyhing tndxral Tanah Tunux murux nanaq kndkilan sitong, Syawriyeyn cyuntaw pa wada mangal tnhangan “Tongyang na Karapakes”.

Singcng cyuhwa(行政區劃)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Seyhu Tanah Tunux pa mniq kngkawas 1947 cida spuda “waya qmlahang nanaq tnualang”; wada dhapnsnakan 47 ka ici singcngcyu, ngalan dha “Tutawhu keyng”, psuwan 1tu, 1taw, 2hu, 43keyng. Duma su pa alaw knhbaraw hiyi sediq, mniq tnualang u niqan biyax niya dmudul, kiyaka wada ngalan cngring cutting tusu, conghesu, terisu. Beytaq kngkawas 2013 idas 4 diyax 1 cida, kana bay nniqan Tanah Tunux pa niqan 20 cngring cutting tusu, 42 ka cohesu mi 40 ka terisu. Trahuc tutawhu keyng na singcng cyuhwa ka sutingcwen, kiya mi niqan cyun, cutting, cyu, tepyeycyu singcng tanwey niya na. Spuda nniqan lnlingay mi bungka, cingci tecng, wada dha psuwan 8 beyhing cyuyu ka Tanah Tunux, kiya ka knkana Peyhaytaw tihwang, Tongpey tihwang, Kwantong tihwang, Congpu tihwang, Cinci tihwang, Cyokoku tihwang, Sukwo tihwang mi Cyoco mi Congsng tihwang.     

Pusu Alang Mkbrnux(主要城市)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Uka hwating sotu ka Tanah Tunux, singcngsin qnhlangan pa wa mniq Tokyoto. Tokyoto cyupu (ngalan dha “Tokyo 23 cyu” uri, kiya ka kari srngaw dha Tokyo sucyu) knhbrawan hiyi sediq u niqan 900 knbkiyan hiyi sediq, kana bay knhbrawan hiyi sediq Tokyoto pa niqan 1,323 knbkiyan hiyi sediq. Tokyo ka pusu ckcka, kiya ka knkana Snnaycwan keyng, Ciyu keyng, Cyeynyey keyng na sotucweyn, knhbrawan hiyi sediq u 3,670 knbkiyan, kiya ka kana jeynseykay knbeyhing bay tusucweyn.

Seyji(政治)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Qnlhangan cyuncu risyeyn ka Tanah Tunux, mtura bay smalu way aka qnlhangan dha “ dmuwi pusu biyax ka ssediq”, kiya mi Teynoheyka ka “qnlhangan Tanah Tunux mi pnskrayan na ssediq msupu pnspuwan”. Mntnahbaraw bay qnlhangan Cyuncu risyeyn, mniq Tanah Tunux ka Teynohey pa wana hangan Kwocya yeynso, kiya mi uka ka mndungus bay biyax na seyji, wana muda quri psdhu uuda   waya, mray so, pbatas horicu mi singcng mingring, psdhu snkaun neyke congri tacn, smruwa qnlhangan icil waycaw sucyey na kwosu, Pusa kari mprading Orinpiko undokay. Teynoheyka saya ka Tejn, wada malix ka tama niya daw, mniq kngkawas 2019 idas 5 diyax 1 psdhun phiyu da.

Waycyaw(外交)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Tanah Tunux saya pa quri so Coseyng ka uka pnluban waycyaw, kiya mi hbaraw Ryeynhekwoqnlhangan kaying mi Hwantikang, Kesowo, Kukecyuntaw mi Nyoay malu bay pnluban dha kana.

Tanah Tunux saya pa mniq kwoci knmalu bay ddangi ka Amirika, ddha dha pa mniq kngkawas1960 ppatas “Meyju anpaw tyawyey” ida muru pnsdhuwan dhuq saya. Alaw ka Tanah Tunux pa wa mniq tunarac daya Asia rhngun mquri Taypingyang, mniq rngcan cida ka Amirika hhtur kyosangto cuyi mniq Asia mrana so brah, kiya ka “tawryeyn”. Tanah Tunux pa mntna bay Amirika mniq Asiaco pusu bay stmam cyunsu cyutyeyn uri, heytay Amirika mniq Tanah Tunux pa phiyu ou bay cyunsu citi, Tanah Tunux Tunux pa quri so Amirika mniq kcka tunarac Asia waycyaw ceryey u niqan bay dndulan niya uri. Quri so tu3 knbeyhing cingciti jeynseykay, Tanah Tunux u mbiyax balay mniq babaw seykay utay pa muda ppqita pnsdkanan hnyuwan niya.

Cyunsu(軍事)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Tanah Tunux saya pa cuweytuy ka pnsliyan qmlahang qnlhangan, pnhiyu kngkawas 1954 idas 7 diyax 1, pusu bay qqpahun dha pa pttuku biyax Tanah Tunux qmlahang dhiya nanaq. Kngkawas 1945 cida, Tanah Tunux pa spuda mnniq Tanah Tunux ka mongcyun congsring Maykease u dmudul pnwaya keyngpo qnlhangan Tanah Tunux, kcka tu9 qnay ka pnwaya Tanah Tunux u ana beytaq knuwan pa malix spuda biyax qnlhangan dmudul mccbu, dmuwi biyax pssicu mi uxay u dmuwi biyax muda snrading uuda kwoci, wada dha ngalan balay bay mndungus muda msblayaq cuyi na keyngpo. So kiya, cweytuy mniq so hangan niya pa uxay cyunsu cucu, binaw balay bay so dungus niya pa kiya ka mntna butay qnlhangan.

Keyjay(經濟)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Keyjay Tanah Tunux pa mniq kcka Tumndha mccbu jeynseykay cida wada snturu beyhing bay qnrqilan,binaw babaw mccbu daw wada ini biyaw mtutuy dungan. Keyjay Tanah Tunux pa kndadax kongyeyn kngkkawas 1960 cida daw prading lmutuc 30 kngkawas knbaraw bay mrana, wada dha ngalan “Pnsklwiyan keyjay mbabaw mccbu Tanah Tunux”, knhbrawan niqan bay hhangan na Tanah Tunux kwakwo ciyey saya pa mntuting jitay niyi kana. Kiya mi kndadax kngkkawas 1990 prading,   alaw wada scuqi tocu dmi wada so cucan pongcang kiya mi cngcweyn mi hwangtican sucang ka “pawmwohwa”, keyjay Tanah Tunux pa hiti bay daw mniq scuqi pusa mkala knbaraw mi ini sangay mrana ka pila Tanah Tunux cida, pawmwo cingci u mtqral, kiya u ana knpriyux keyjay ka seyhu pa uka bay brahan uri, wada dha ngalan “mnrdang na 10 kngkawas”. Kngkawas 2002 idas 2 prading daw kndudul mtdakil ka keyjay Tanah Tunux, wada mnuda mnhdu mccbu knbbaraw bay iyax mntutuy diyax ciru, wada dha ngalan “mnrdang na 20 kngkawas”

Canyey ceyko產業結構[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Tu3 canyey Tanah Tunux pa, qquri so inhangyey, cinjongyey, hangyunyey, pawseynyey mi sangyey huwu pa niqan bay ndan niya GDP, hmrinas 70% GDP kana qnlhangan. Tokyo pa uxay wana tu1 knbeyhing bay alang mkbrnux mi cingci congsin kcka qlhangan, kiya ka kana jeynseykay knbeyhing bay kongsang alang mkbrnux mi kana jeyseykay sngcan congcu tuicibang na alang mkbrnux uri, kiya ka jeynseykay tingci na cinjong, hangyun congsin uri. Huwuyey ka pusu bay lhbul tu3 canyey Tanah Tunux, hmrinas 70% GDP kana qnlhangan Tanah Tunux; kngkawas 2011 ka huwu mawyi cuko Tanah Tunux pa kiya ka kana seykay cuko 3.4%, tu7 bkuwan kana jeynseykay.  GDP 70%。

Tu2 canyey

Pusu bay kongyeyhwanwey Tanah Tunux pa kiya ka knkana kangtey, rulu, smmalu asu, tyeyncu tyeynci, hwakong, hwangcu mi uuqun cyakong, quri so rulu kongyey ka Tanah Tunux cucawyey  ongcancu 16%, kiya u canyeyryeyn dmudul smmalu, mpbari, psalu pawyang, jayryaw ka llabang bay ddaun, niqan pnluban rulu kongyey na congyey jnyeyn pa kiya ka kana qnhlangan mqpah sediq na 10%, pndungus knou bay qqpahun kongmin Tanah Tunux, so kiya ka splawa dha “uruc dmkuh canyey” Tanah Tunux, kiya mi wada mtu2 knbeyhing qnlhangan rulu cuko ka Tanah Tunux.

Pnyahan pnatas(參考資料)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]