Cuba

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Flag of Cuba
Flag of Cuba-Kwoci Cuba(古巴國旗)

Cuba(古巴)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Gaga kska Kska- Hunac Meycow ka Cuba, 21 30 N, 80 00 W ka gaga na nniqan.

Kana ka knlbangan na o 110,860 sq km(hangan na o Tg106)(knlbanga dxgal o 109,820 sq km, knlbangan qsiya o 1,040 sq km).

File:Coat of arms of Cuba.svg-Kwohwey.(國徽)

Kana ka sejiqun o niqan 11,179,995 hiyi.

Gaga Havana ka pusu alang paru, jiyax 1 idas 1 ka jiyax skrayan klwaan.

Manu ka dxgal Cuba ga wada sugan 60.30% ka dxgal qpahan, 27.30% ka dxgal bbuyu, rahuq dxgal do niqan 12.40% na.

Bukung klwaan ta sayang o kiya ka Raúl Castro, pnaah hngkawas2011 idas 4 jiyax 19pnrajing kmlawa klwaan.

File:Cuba (orthographic projection).svg-Ida nkiya nniqan lnglingay.(自然地理位置)

cinkhulan sa knita’ sa brbiru’

Kuba konghokwo(古巴共和國)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kuba konghokwo (kari Sipanya:República de Cuba), ssplawa dha Kuba (Cuba), kiya mi Meyco Cyaropihay tudaya knou bay taw ka knlangan niyi, wa mniq peywey u iyax 19° mi 24 , sicing u iyax 74° mi 85°. Wa mniq rriqi Mosiko rrhngun, tuiril u msupu Mosiko Yocyatun pantaw mtuayus Cyatun haysya, tuhunac u niqan Yamaycya mi Kayman cyuntaw, tunaran u msupu Hayti konghokwo mi Tomingnicya konghokwo mtuayus Syanghong haysya, tu narac daya u niqan Pahama cyuntaw, mtqita balay Amirika Hororita haysya, msdalih Hororitaco tuhunac balay dxral Ciweysuto knsdalih dha u ya bay 145 kongri balay. Knbeyki bay knlbangan dxral Cyaropihay mi tudha knhbrawan hiyi sediq ka tawyu Kuba, Kuba ka qmlahang bay Panama yunho mi iyax pusu bay elu ucilung uusa Amirika tunarac mkngahu ucilung. Wada ngalun sa ruhu rriqi Mosiko ka Kuba. Dxral qnlhangan niya pa kiya ka Kuba cutaw mi kana qnlhangan na cyuntaw mi Seyningtaw. Hawana ka sotu Kuba mi knbeyki bay alang mkbrnux, Sngtiyako ka tudha knbeyki alang mkbrnux.

Rikisi(歷史)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Mnwaya balay wenming:[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:Hatuey monument, Baracoa, Cuba.JPG(被譽為「美洲首位起義者」的哈土依)

Ini dhuq hini brah ka sediq Sipanya, mnniq Kuba taw u sediq Tayno, sediq Siponey mi sediq Kwanahatapeyyi.

Knrudan dha cbiyaw pa pneyyah tudaya Meyco, tukcka Meyco mi Nanmeyco taru thdil hini.

Sediq Tayno ka knama mkla tawsu mi tmabun qmpah.

Sediq Siponey mi sediq Kwanahatapeyyi mthiti hari kiya, dhiya wa mniq kcka bling mi tnpcamac mi tnqcurux, thitihari daw kiya ka mhuma spriq puqan.

Qlhangan:[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:Independencia de Cuba, revista la flaca, 1873..jpg(1873年的一份西班牙雜誌所描繪的古巴獨立運動)

Kngkawas 1492 idas 10 cida pa wada sndalan Korunpu ka Kuba.

Kngkawas 1515 cida, phyuwan ka Hawana.

Ini sruwa tumal Kiristokyo ka sediq tnpusu daw wada pkixun Sipanya mqlahang kmari king.

Kngkawas 1529 cida mniq Kuba mnuda qnlqilan narux Macn mi wada dsun narux niyi mi mrdang ka 2/3 knhbrawan hiyi sediq, msngari 1/3 balay ka sediq tnpusu, dhiya u quri so pneyyah Oco ka run narux niyi pa uka biyax mdakar ka hiyi dha, kiya ka mniq 1 seyki daw maku so pkngatun kana da.

Smatang pkbaka ini kntuku ka mpqpah sediq, kndadax 16 seyki prading dmudul knhbaraw sediq qalux Ahuyrika ka ngalun quli pqpah, qpahun dha u qpahun mhuma ppwalang mi kmari kwang.

Kngkawas 1762 cida, wada yahan tnayis mluk Taing Tikwo ka Hawana, putting hiti daw wada plixun Sipanya ka Hororita mi ppryuxun peyyah dungan.

Kngkawas 1790 cida, Kuba u mtutuy ka mwaya bay dmudul dukuricu undo, wada mangal mtrawah ka quli mpqpah qnpahan Hosay Antongni u dmudul quli ciyi.

Dukuricu(獨立)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:Jose Marti head.jpg(何塞·馬蒂)

Snkulan mpqlahang qnbliqan Amirika ka Myeyninhaw cancyeyn u mniq Hawana sanan trudu asu pspuruq, Amirika u tmiyu ndan Sipanya ka niyi, kiya mi wada mccbu ka cida, ndanan u ngalan dha mccbu Amirika mi Sipanya, hiti balay daw wada sbuway Sipanya quri Amirika ka Kuba.

Kngkawas 1902 cida wada srwanan Amirika dukuricu ka Kuba, sdkuh dha ka tucayco Aysutorata Paarma.

Koming(革命)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:CheyFidel.jpg(古巴革命領導人菲德爾·卡斯楚(右)和切·格瓦拉(左),1961年)
File:Cuba-Russia friendship poster.jpg(卡斯楚與赫魯曉夫「蘇聯與古巴人民間永恆而牢不可破的友誼與合作萬歲!」)
File:Havana - Cuba - 0445.jpg(「萬歲7月26日」蔗汁店。1968年的「革命攻勢」使幾乎全部小商販成為拿固定工資的國家雇員,但隨著改革推進,他們必須為自謀生路做好準備。)

Kngkawas 1953 idas 7 diyax 26, Huytoar Kasucu mi Rawar Kasucu ka pusu dha mi ya bay 160 hiyi ka komingco Huytoar Kasucu mi Rawar Kasucu ka pusu dha mi ya bay 160 hiyi ka komingco musa mcbu Mongkata pinging mi Payamo pinging na Sngtiyako, wada pkhnang tukingal puniq, wada ini pndungus ka uuda daha daw mnngari mudus u wada qrapun, binaw spuda nripan biyax knhbrawan sediq daw wada toso plixan dungan.

Bukuy daw, komingco u dmuwi pnkari “Phiyu Kuba sediq Kuba”, pssli pnsliyan koming 726 undo, lmutuc hantay Patisuta tucay tongcu.

Kngkawas 1956 idas 11 diyax 25, mnswayi Kasucu, Cyey Kowara d82 hiyi komingco tapa asu yoting Koramahaw kndadax Mosiko tbrinah Kuba, dungan u wada Maaysutora lmiqu prading yoci mccbu.

Kngkawas 1957 idas 3, Antongniaw Aycyeyweyriya dhiya u musa mcbu cotohu, phiyu 313 koming cutaw ingkay.

Kngkawas 1958 idas 2, Hurey Cyomong dmudul yeycngcyun snrading burah tlayun dungan.

Wada qmita uxay biyaw mpuuka ka biyax na Patisuta cngcweyn, Amirika u kngkawas 1958 idas 3 diyax 14 cida prading hmtur mhaqun ppuniq, kiya daw, komingco knllu pcriyu llmiqu Maaysutora, prading kana biyax mcbu, ulkun ka Sngtakorara daw, wada qduriq Budoya ka Patisuta.

Mntna kingal diyax, kiya ka kngkawas 1959 idas 1 diyax 1, ciyicyun knrmux Hawana.

So kusun, pusa kari phiyu koming seyhu.

Nniqan lnglingay(地理)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Ddxral Kuba u pnspuwan Kubataw, Seyningtaw mi kana knkana bbeyki tawyu mi ttiping tawyu, Kubataw ka pusu bay taw, mtqiri ssiyaw ka sspac tiping hari cyuntaw, kiya ka tuiril daya mkngahu ucilung nganguc ka Kororato cyuntaw, pusu taw tukcka daya Tasiyang mkngahu nganguc ka Sawana-Kamakuy cyuntaw, tukcka hunac nganguc ka Wangho Hwayeyn cyuntaw mi tudaya hunac mkngahu ucilung nganguc ka Kanareyaws cyuntaw.

File:2012-02-Sierra Maestra Turquino Nationalpark Kuba 01 anagoria.JPG(馬埃斯特臘山脈)

Karac(氣候)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:VinalesValleyCuba.jpg(比尼亞萊斯山谷)

Wada runun rriqi Mosiko nwanryo pnkranan kntlxan mi pnkranan knhuriq ka nniqan hiya u karac kntlxan sspriq brnux, kntlxan karac pndkanan kawas mi diyax u tikuh balay, knpriyux ka karac mkmisan mi mkrbawan pa kasi ka qmita qnyuxan qsiya ka klaun da.

Karac kndnguwan u kndadax idas 11 lmutuc dhuq kawas idas 4, karac sqyuxan daw kndadax idas 5 dhuq idas 10.

Karac kndnguwan cida u mdngu kana ka knlangan, pskingal ka tunarac daya sbwihur, kntlxan u mkmuxul hari, malu sanan rmiwaw.

Karac sqyuxan daw tunarac hunac bwihur u suiyuk na dhuq kcka taw ka knhuriq mi knskuy mnniq baraw Tasiyang, pndkanan ka knhuriq u ya bay dhuq 90%, pkrana so bay thmuk mtilux. Knrbu ka knhurir u ya bay dhuq 95%, dhuq cka hidaw daw mlih da.  

File:Priotelus temnurus -Camaguey, Camaguey Province, Cuba-8.jpg(古巴咬鵑,古巴的國鳥)

Ccamac mi ppwalang(動植物)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Knkarac Kuba u wada dmanga kari bay kluwanan kntlxan ppwalang, niqan hmrinas6,500 kluwanan rhak ppwalang.

Tunarac qqhuni lmiqu ka llabang balay, niqan wang cong 30 kluwan sngari ka quri sksik ppwalang. 

Hmru mdakil qhuni mkray hbangan knkrayan qqhuni, niqan tawhwasin, qhuni tanah, qhuni tan, qhuni qulic Kuba.  

Qqhuni lmiqu Kuba qpringan lmutuc mrana, kngkawas 2011 dhuq 25%.

Mkray ubal qolic mi kkluwanan bkaric mi wisu mniq kana niniqan Kuba.

137 kluwanan ka qduda pa niqan ririh na u niqan qdiraw qudas, qduda walu, qduda hworyey, scmeyncyo lmiqu, cinkang ingu mi ppuruc mrngac.

105 kluwanan ka mkkarang mundus mi uka doku kana, kiya knkana Kuba kuluk rakaw, meyco oyu, mi toyocong Kuba oyu.

Qqcurux mi cyako tongu, qqcurux sahucyaw, krarang elu, sayu, qcurux tyaw mi cincyangyu kluwan u ou balay mndungus bay uri.

Seyji(政治)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:CubaElectio.JPG(宣傳2008年古巴人大代表選舉的展板)
File:Comité Central PCC.jpg(古巴共產黨總部)

Kuba konghokwo u ini khbaraw kyusanto cucng ka knglangan sohuy cuyi na saya.  

Kuba pa kngkawas 1976 cida keyngpo ka pnwaya knlangan dh aka sohuy cuyi konghokwo.

Kngkawas 1992 cida keyngpo ka pnwaya knlangan dha u Hosay Mati ka lnglungan mi Makosu Ryeyning cuyi ka mptusa, kngkawas 2002 cida malan “sojuy cuyi ticu naqah slwelu” kingal kari dungal. Kuba kyusanto ka “biyax dmudul sohuy mi knlangan”, bukung bay tang mi knlangan ka Kuba kyusanto congyang ingkay tukingal suki kimi mangal qpahun Kuba kwou ingkay cusi(yeynso knlangan) kima mangal qpahun Kuba bucyo kaygi cusi (mpdudul seyhu) mi Kuba koming ucwang biyax congsuring, qpahun niyi mi kwou ingkay 31 hiyi ing pa kndadax kana knlangan jnmin cngcweyn dahyo taykay seyngkyo pneyyah.  

Yeynso knlangan mi mpdudul seyhu tumtxan diyax qpahun pa 5 kngkawas, malu mndha mangal qpahun.

Singcng Cyuhwa(行政區劃)   [smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kuba dmuwi congyang cicweyn na cngcu ticu.

Kana knlangan u psuwan 14 sng, 1 sngci su (Hawana su) mi seyningtaw tocyu, dsingcngcyu niyi u to bay so 6 knbeyhing rikisi snghun cuxan pnsnakan, kcka niyi u Aartomisa sng mi Mayapeyko sng ka kngkawas 2011 idas 1 diyax 1 pnsnakan kndadax Hawana sng, trahuc sng u phyuwan 169 ka su.

Tg piya Hangan Alang
CubaSubdivisions.png
1. Pinaartoriaw sng 比那爾德里奧省
2 Aartomisa sng 阿爾特米薩省
3 Hawana su 哈瓦那市 
4 Mayapetko sng 瑪雅貝克省
5 Matansas sng 馬坦薩斯省
6 Siunhukos sng 西恩富戈斯省 
7 Piyakorara sng 比亞克拉拉省
8 Sngsupiritus sng 聖斯皮里圖斯省
9 Syeykotoaweyra sng 謝戈德阿維拉省
10 Kamakuy sng 卡馬圭省
11 Rasutunas sng 拉斯圖納斯省
12 Korama sng 格拉瑪省
13 Awarking sng 奧爾金省
14 Songtiyako sng 聖地牙哥省
15 Kwantanamo sng 關塔那摩省
16 Seyningtaw tocyu 青年島特區     
File:Santiago de Cuba - Garde au Mausolée José Marti.JPG(何塞·馬蒂墓前換崗的古巴禮兵)

Cyunsu(軍事)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Seyhu Kuba pa plwanun dha Kuba koming ucwang biyax ka butay seyhu.

Kngkawas 2006 cida, ddiyun butay u pdkanan kana nngalan hbangan Kuba seyhu pa 3.8%, ddiyun dha butay u wada dyawan muway Cyokoku mi Coseyng.

Kuba u knlangan bsiyaq balay muda waya yiu pingyicu, mttuku 17 kngkawas ka rrisaw daw niqan seykining musa heytay kana.

Diyax sanan heytay u 1 kngkawas mi 2 kngkawas, qnbsyaqan u qmita ya wada ngalun kawtng cyawyu mpuyas dungan.

Mttuku 17 kngkawas ka wouwa kongmin pa nasi smruwa, kiya mi mndungus ddiyun butay daw, malu tumal butay uri.   

Kngkawas 2000 cida, Huytoar Kasucu mniq Hawana mtqita Horacimiar Pucing.

Waycyaw(外交)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Qnita seyhu Kuba pa, muru pnwaya kwocihwa lxan na balay kari: Snbalay kana pusu biyax txtaxa knlangan, dukuricu mi mndungus ka ddxral qnlhangan, dmkuh minjoku qmlahang dhiya nanaq, mntna kana ka knlangan, ini sruwa musa tumal neycng knlangan icil.

“Dayi ta pndungus ka spin a Poriwaar mi Mati”
“Tiko cuyi kana seynsey, ini name balay kicu munan!”                               Kingal seyngdeyng kmciyuk Amirika.

Qnita dha pa kwoci hocwo pa kasi ka mniq mntna cicu mi pkhuway mi pkmalu, mdhu balay psblayaq msupu, muru “Pnwaya keyngpo Ryeynhoko”。

Keyjay(經濟)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kingal caysucang Hawana.

Seyhu Kuba pa spuda sohuy cuyi ka pusu dha muda cihwa cingci, to bay knlangan  ka wisu qmlahang knkana ppatas pnyahan, kiya mi to bay so knlangan kana uri ka pnlawa mpqpah niya.

Wada mlhlah ka Suryeyn daw kiya ka prading mrana ka qqpahun ntxtaxa, mniq kngkawas 2006 cida ya bay 77.5% ka qpahun u na seyhu, msngari ya bay 21.5% ka na txtaxa hiyi sediq, kiya mi kngkawas 1981, cida han ka pndkanan niyi u 91.8% mi 8.2%.

Tocu u kasi ka niqan seymung bay tyawcyeyn, knou neydang sbari qqiya u knlangan ka snolun kari.  

Kngkawas 2013 idas 7, pndkanan dha nngalan knkingal idas pa 466 Kuba piso, ya bay 19 pila Amirika.

Kuba mi duma knlangan Cyaropihay jncyun kcka knlangan sngcan congcu knpriyux niya

Kuba u ida nanaq so tikuh ka sediq uka qpahun mi ini hari krna ka neydang bbriyun, binaw kawas kawas daw mawyi nica ka mchdil, ini tuku biyax dha pririh saking nganguc.   

Canyey(產業)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Mniq Kuba Sngtiyako wisu smmalu sweycya.
“Hwangcya” kcka mpsalu kucu u muda tmsa quri seyji.

Spuda kngkawas 2015 pan “Seykay kaykwang”, kcka knlangan Kuba pnyahan congcu u so niyi: Qpahun nongyey u 4%, kongyey u 23.5%, huwuyey ka 72.7.

Kwangcan mi nngyeyn(礦產與能源)  [smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kwangcan cuyeyn Kuba u knou balay, kcka niya u pusu na bay ka nyey, ro, dong, xihuy, mong. 

Uxay wana so niyi, kmari ryohwang, ku, ryotyey kwang, sukaw, sumyeyn, gasoring mi btunux seykayi. 

Cuyeyn truma dxral u na jaysang seyhu kana.

Kiya u snkuwan dha nyey u tudha knou kana jeynseykay, msnul quri Orosu. 

Kuba ka turima kana jeynseykay cingryeyn kun a pnyahan knlangan.

Spoda snpuwan Amirika ticu tyawcacyu, tudaya Kuba haypn snkuwan dha u ya bay 46 oku tnqriyan gasoring mi 9.8 oku rihwang meyta gasu.

Kngkawas 2012 idas 2 brah, Kuba knrbuq ucilung sangyey kmari gasoring cihwa balay bay mndungus muda.

Qpahun rmiwaw(旅遊業) [smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Paratoro ssiyaw ucilung.

Kngkawas 1959 wada mbiyax ka koming babaw na kcka 30 kngkawas pa, Kuba u wana yotay kndadax Suryeyn mi knlangan ini khbaraw okuyaku Tunarac Oco.  

Kndadax 1990 shlah ka qpahun rrmiwaw daw, knlangan qpahun rrmiwaw Kuba u ini biyaw mtana, wada mukana nniqan Rating Meyco tu9 knbeyhing ssanun rmiway knlangan.

Kngkawas 1994 cida, phiyu rrmiwaybu ka Kuba, mniq kngkawas 1990 mi kngkawas 2000 iyax cida, hmrinah 35 oku hbangan Amirika wada diyun towcu phiyu rriwaw sosu.

Kngkaw 1995, nngalan hbangan qqpahun rriwaw pa wada hmrinas nngalan hbangan qqpahun sato sibus, wada bay pusu ngengalan hbangan knlangan Kuba.

Mnbrinah dungan ka kwoci beyhung asu rrmiwaw ka madas knhbrawan bay sediq mprwaw, kngkawa 2010 cida, wada syotay sediq mpriwaw knlangan icil u 250 knbkiyan ssediq, kiya mi kcka sediq mpriwaw Kanada ka dhuq 94.5 knbkiyan knhbrawan ssediq, wada mangal 24 oku hbangan Amirika.

Ana so pcmiyah knhbaraw bay sediq Amirika ka sngtangal dha Kuba pa, binaw “Hoarmus-Potunhwa” ka ptwaya, knhbaraw hiyi mpriwaw Amirika u ini khbaraw, pusu na bay u miyah qmita sediq tnqliyan Kuba, kiya mi niqan ini khrinas 3 knbkiyan hiyi sediq Amirika ka ini puda waya musa Kuba.

Quri so pnsltudan rrmiwaw, spruwan qmita ka pqita narux rmiwaw uri, Kngkawas 2005 cida, niqan hmrinas 19,600 hiyi sediq mpriwaw ka mniq Kuba waoci byoing mangal pila pqita narux.

Quri so qrasun dha pkmalu narux kluwanan u kiya ka knkana claq pkmalu narux, tokubeycu keynsa mi pkmalu sosu knpriyux naqah suwangmwo yeyn, narux paypan, narux pacinsn, tohwasing inghwacng ka lnlamu narux. 

Cyawtong(交通) [smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kuba pa ya bay niqan 49,000 kongri ka elu beyhing, kiya mi elu beyhing ndanan snbalay pa 14,478 kongri, kawsu kongru u 682 kongri, elu beyhing kcka smqic Kuba taw.

Kuba u kana knlangan Cyaropihay pa murux bay niqan elu kisya ppanun sediq na knlangan, knbbaraw elu kisya u 14,838 kongri, kiya mi hmrinas dmka ka elu seymung bay shaqun sibus, niqan ddeyngki elu kisya u 147 kongri, kngkawas 2010 idas 5 cida, seyhu Kuba u pusa kari pkrana ka cihwa muda snburah smmalu elu kisya wang, mari burah otobay, kiya mi srawah ka 4 congsin pkla psluhay mpqpah sediq elu kisya.

Asu hhaqun qqiya u 117 asu, kana bay panan cnhdilan tun u 140 knbkiyan tun.

Niqan 16 ka sangyey sanan trudu asu mi 23 ka hucu sanan trudu asu, kcka niyi u niqan 7 ka knbeyki hari.

Kuba u mnuda knbeyhing bay nniqan Cyaropihay knlangan elu muda ucilung, binaw alaw pddayaw keyjay ingkay wada mkrhak, kiya ka wada kasi stabuy ka sntama elu muda ucilung.

Hawana mi Sngtiyako sanan trudu asu ka pusu bay sanan trudu asu.

Niqan 20 ka sanan trudu skoki, kcka niyi u 11 ka kwoci sanan trudu skoki.

Kngkawas 2012 cida, Kuba hangkong kojyo pa niqan 13 ka skoki wisu stmaun saya, niqan 3 basu karac baraw A320-200 sing panan sediq mpriwaw, to bay so snalu Orosiya mi Ukoran kana.

Nglan dha congpu ka Hawana Hosay Mati koci sanan trudu skoki, mmwaluk skaya mquri Kanada, Mosiko, Sipanya, Orosiya, Weyneyjweyra mi kana 15 knlangan, kana balay ssaun u 35 nniqan.

Niqan knou balay hangkong kojyo knlangan icil ka cinging elu snkyanan musa Kuba hangsyeyn mi tbrinah, quri so Amirika mi Kuba pa uka mndungus bay sangyey hangsyeyn, quri so baw skoki ka uuda dha qqpahun skoki, seyhu Amirika wada uqan kari ka waycyawkwan dha daw wada muda hmtur sediq Amirika murux musa Kuba.

Syakay(社會) [smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

1899-2002 Seyhu Kuba puca knhbrawan hiyi sediq
Kluwan sediq    % 1899 1907 1919 1931 1943 1953 1981 2002
Sediq bhuway 66.9 69.7 72.2 72.1 74.3 72.8 66.0 65.05
Sediq qalux 14.9 13.4 11.2 11.0 9.7 12.4 12.0 10.08
Sediq aynoko 17.2 16.3 16.0 16.2 15.6 14.5 21.9 23.84
Sediq Asia 1.0 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.1 1.02

Knhbrawan hiyi sediq(人口) [smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Beytaq hiti balay kngkawas 2012 cida, kana balay knhbrawas hiyi Kuba u 11,167,325 hiyi, kiya ka knhbaraw bay sediq taw knlangan Cyaropihay, mitu nniqan sediq u kngkingal pinghwang kongri u 102.3 hiyi sediq.

Pingcyun knudus dha sediq Kuba u 35.1 kngkawas, niqan 16.3% ka sediq u hmrinas 60 kngkawas, niqan 75% sediq Kuba u wa mniq alang mkbrnux, kiya ka 846.5 knbkiyan hiyi, wa mniq nanaq tnualang nongcwen pa niqan 277.5 knbkiyan hiyi sediq.

Msciyuk quri brah cida, pndkanan knhbrawan kana sediq ka dqridin u 50.1%, mabang tikuh pndkanan dsnaw.

Kuba u tikuh bay cusngryu kana pndkanan sediq Meyco ka Kuba, kngkawas 2012 cida pa mk10 kbkuy u 9.96 hiyi.

Knhbrawan kana sediq u kndadax kngkawas 2006 prading daw wada kndudul mlihn.

Alaw wada stabuy ka qridin tmquli laqi, saya daw kndudul mkrinah knrudan ka knhbrawan hiyi sediq.

Hmrinas 60 kngkawas ka knhbrawan sediq u pndkanan kana sediq u 18.3%, 0-14 kngkawas u pndkanan kana sediq u 17.2%.

Knhbrawan na malu qmpah sediq u 502 knbkiya hiyi, pndkanan knhbrawan 15 kngkawas mi hmrinas 15 kngkawas sediq u 54.3%.

Kndadax 2002 dhuq 2012 kngkawas pa, wada mrana 9.9% ka sediq mniq nniqan da.

Tnhdilan sediq(移民)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Mntna duma knlangan kayhwacong msdalih Amirika, knhbaraw bay sediq Kuba u alaw quri smatang quri pkrana keyjay dha nanaq mi wada thdil Amirika, wada muknlangan sohuy cuyi ka Kuba daw, alaw slhbun ulkun ka jaysang, hbaraw bay sediq tnqliyan Kuba u prading mquri Hororita, dhiya u pusu bay sediq tsndxral, sediq mbbari mi sediq mtkkla mnuyas.

Kngkawas 1965 daw, ya bay niqan 10 knbkiyan hiyi sediq Kuba spuda kingal diyax mndha ka “mtrawah hangpan” kndadax Hawana mquri Amirika.

Kngkawas 1966 wada miyah ka “Kuba mnpskbalay”, quri so pnwaya kiya, ana ima ka pneyyah kngkawas 1959 dhuq Amirika mi mnniq Amirika mnttuku kingal kngkawas ka sediq tnhdilan Kuba, malu mangal ana dhuq knuwan cyuryocyeyn.  

Weysng(衛生)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kana sediq Kuba pa niqan keynri mniq knlanan Kuba musa ana inu byoing pqita narux ini ngali pila.

Knlangan Kuba qnlhangan na keynri pqita narux pa so trahuc niyi: Spuda cnso pqita narux, cikong congsin, ising tnsapah mi pnspuwan byoing mkbrnux tnualang tu3ci pqtan narux wangru muda ini angal pila muway iyu mi qnlhangan byoing; ini angal pila pqita rupun; mniq kcka weysng qmlahang pkrana mi cyeynkang cyawyu hwacan cihwa, muda pskingal diyax pqita hiyi, muru pnwaya pbeytaq mi quri so qndahang duma narux.

Uuda quri so pnqtanan sediq mnarux txtaxa ising Kuba.

Bntasan baraw cuhwa mi nuda spuda hbaraw sediq pnsliyan mi sohuy cucu muda dmayaw knkana sediq knlangan.

Spuda dnyawan hbangan seyhu u, so mpqpah qridin Kuba u mniq mptuting laqi brah mi hiti pa niqan hokyo msangay tnlaqi mi qpahun qridin mntnquli laqi so tnayis qqpahun

Bkuwan matas weysng cwangkwang Kuba Pnsliyan Seykay weysng
Kknudus (kngkawas) snaw/qridin: 76.2/80.4
Hhuqil ryu laqi rabu (mk10 kbkuy): 4.9
Hhuqil ryu 15 dhuq 60 kngkawas snaw/qridin (mk10 kbkuy): 120/78
Mk10 kbkuy knhbrawan mniqan ising (uxay ka ising pqita rupun): 6.8
Mk10 kbkuy knhbrawan mniqan ising 0.87
Mkknbkiyan hiyi sediq mniqan sanan mniq byoing: 49
Ddiyu hbangan txtaxa sediq pqita narux (pila Amirika): 503
Dnuwi hbangan weysng pndkanan kana sngcan congcu kcka knlangan pahunpi: 11.8
Payhunpi runun narux aycuping: 0.052
Pnyahan bntasan: Weysng cwangkwang Kuba Pnsliyan Seykay weysng

Cyawyu(教育)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kuba cyawyu puci mi cngtu mniq kana knlangan Rating Meyco u wa mniq quri tbrah.

Ddiyun hbangan cyawyu u ya bay 1/10 hbangan kana nngalan knlangan.

Llaqi muyas tutiping pyasan Kuba, slwilun dha waru ka tawru Hosay Mati syeynhongtuy.

Mnhdu muyas 9 kngkawas yiwu cyawyu daw, malu spuda skeyng pyasan tubeyhing yuko sapah pyasan uxay daw cuyey cisu pyasan, ini angal skeyng ka mpskeyng pa kawas cida u malu muda mumal skeyng ntxan dungan.

Knkingal kluwanan sapah pyasan u pnhiyu knlangan kana, ini buway hbangan muyas mi ppatas kana, ini angal pila uuqun mi lukus pyasan.

Sapah pyasan tubeyhing Hawana.

Muyas ryu tutiping pyasan ka liqi u 100%, mnuyas tubeyhing pyasan ka kana mnuyas u 57%, kngkawas 1957 cida ka mnkla mita jiyi u 76.4%.

Putting hiti kngkawas 1961 cida, seyhu Kasucu pusa kari mnhdu sawma undo.

Kuba saya ka mnkla mita jiyi u dhuq 99.9%, mkala kana jeynseykay.

Snhiyan(宗教)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Teysu kyokay Hawana.
Sinjya Satayriakyo.
Snhiyan Kuba (bntasan kngkawas 2010)
Kiristokyo (Mntna snhiyan Kiristo) 59.22%
Ini knklay snhiyan niya 17.98%
Snhiyi knou kluwanan utux niya 17.18%
Ini snhiyi niqan Utux niya 5.07%
Snhiyan quri icil 0.55%

Kuba u mnsnhiyan knlangan ini snhiyi niqan Utux han.

Kngkawas 1962 cida eyhu Kasucu u mnhmuk 400 sngari sapah pyasan Teysukyo, ngalan dha umarang uxay msblayaq ka snhiyan sapah pyasan niyi.

Kngkawas 1991 cida, slhlah Kuba kyusanto ka waya hmtur snhiyan.

So kawas daw, sbrahan ka keyngpo, wada knpriyux knlangan mkmbabaw dxral ka Kuba, kiya ka uxay na pnluban snhiyan ka seyhu, binaw ini uda mdakar quri snlhayan snhiyan da.

So kiya, snluhay snhiyan ka sinjya pa malu tumal Kuba kyusanto, peyyah cida daw wada mrana kndkilan niya ka Teynsukyo.

Kngkawas 1996 idas 11, cyawcong Jowang Pawru 2 su splawaa Kasucu miyah homung Kuba.

Bungka(文化)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Mpricuh juga ka Rin huyrong u Kuba cawsyeynsu cuyi.

Mntna bay kingal pnsranaq tahuc ka Kuba, pnspuwan pnsltudan bungka Sipanya mibungka Ahuyrika ka pusu mi knou bay kluwanan bay quri knux na seyji uri.

Meysu(美術)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Mpricuh juga u mniq tu20 seyki ka wada mtutuy mangal hangal, kcka niya u wada tndhun Pikaso ka hwayi mpricuh juga Weyar Hureyto Rin (Hangan na Telu u Rin huyrong, niqan ka rncuhan na juga wada wewan Newyok syeyntay yisu powukwan mi Matori Huyya wangho knlangan yisu congsin powukwan), Reyney Potokareyro, Amiriya Peyrays, dhiya u to bay syeynhongpay yisucya.

Spruwan bay jiday saya mpricuh juga pa niqan Tomas Sangceys, Hosay Peytiya, Aturo Kunka, Ropoto Hwapeyro, Naarsyun Tomingkos, Ayarneysto Peyna.

Babaw koming daw, Wada pcriyu kari bay ddiyun dmudul qcahur sediq ka juga umarang koming Kuba.

Ana so wada runan bay sohuy cuyi syeysu cuyi ka yisu cwangcwo, binaw ini pntna pnsltudan knlangan tunaran syakay cuyi, ini dani mipix seyhu ka syeynhong yisu Kuba, knrinah niqan ssanan dha pkrana knlangan nganguc.

Wenswey(文學)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Mniq tu19 seyki nhana pnrdingan daw prading phnang nanaq ka Kuba wenswey, pusu bay dndulan dha u dukuricu mi mtrawah.

Dmudul Kuba wenswey syeyntay cuyi undo ka Hosay Mati.

Mnhdu phiyu ka knlangan Kuba konghokwo daw, dima so tnqliyan knlangan nganguc ka koming cwocya u miyah knlangan Kuba kana da.

Cida u niqan hbaraw bay cwocya pa pqita nanaq knklanan dha, niqan ka duma cwocya u umarang aykwo cuyi, pdudu qnnaqah ndanan seyji.

Syawsocya Karos Roweyra ka mniq kcka bntasan na patas“Cyangcyun mi sediq tmkarac”msang rmngaw mntutuy ka burah kuycu Kuba, mdhu bay pkla mdakaw cyawcweyn.

Mikoar To Kariwong u pkla kari dmuwi ida nkiya cuyi sohwa matas pdudu rmngaw cucan cuyi cyeyci tawtokwan syawso“Qridin msdurux lngelungan”mi ptura mtruma kndusan na syawso“Qridin ini mtduwa”.

Cwocya Hosay Antongniaw Ramos u pkla kari pdudu rmngaw kndyakan tikwo cuyi mi quri ini sblayaq qmita ini pntna minjoku ka syawso mi cyupn “Cawco”, “Koaipai”.

Tiyu(體育)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Snbeyhing bay qmita tiyu ka kana sediq Kuba, alaw ka rikisi dha u niqan pnluban Amirika, hbaraw bay sediq Kuba u mtmay sdhmawan quri undo Peymey, uxay pnsltudan quri lhayan undo tmkari Sipanya.

Kcka na u pangcyo ka qrasun dha bay qmita, bukuy na daw rancyo, paycyo, pancyo, tyeyncing.

Dmudul quri so yeyyu bokusing ka Kuba, lmutuc mniq pnsung kwoci mangal snadu.

Teylung Ropos ka mnuda ciru pawcuco quri snaw 110 meyta kwaran.

Seyhu Kuba u kngkawas 1962 cida pusa kari malix ngalan qqpahun ka tiyu, muda ini ngali pila qmita knkluwan pnsung tiyu.

Inggaku(音樂)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Pnsung psumu kwoci mniq Hawana.
Iburayin Huyryey.

Inggaku Kuba pa pnspuwan Sipanya minjoku inggaku mi qalux sediqmuyas mi rmwori qalux sediq.

Uyas tndahu ka pusu bay quri inggaku, mniq quri so pnrngawan niyi u pkrana knou bay kluwanan inggaku hongko, mray so saarsa, cyacyacya, runba, rwori manbo.

Tiyucang Rating Meyco.

Turu wasil gita u mntuting Kuba, kiya mi kwakwa, marinba mi pngkoku ka lubu kndadax Ahuyrika.

Hana mniyah ka mpqlahang kndadax icil umniq cumin tongcu jiday u wada bay pkngatun kana ka Indian sediq tnpusu, wana murux bay inggaku yici ka lubu sacuy statuk, kiya ka pusu bay sduwi Rating inggaku.

Kingal sapah ppyasan uyas wa mniq Sngtiyako Kuba.

Quri so ongpu na u mqriqu, knpriyux uka mklanan ka Kuba inggaku Ahuyrika, knpriyux bay ka ongpu niya, so tnhuway ongpu niya ka inggaku Kwasira (inggaku syangcun) upnsltudan inggaku tnualang kingalnanaq inggaku pusu kluwanan.

Ida niya sdhuwan bay ka knux inggaku Antarusiya, kuxul bay sediq tnualang ka so niyi spuda uyas muda snrnu seyji, malan uyas tndahuka uyas umalu knlangan “Kwantanameyra” ka wada pkranan balay quri Kwasira inggaku.

Kiya mi, peyyah tu20 seyki prading, wada balay danan ka diyax utux bruwa.

Uuqun mi mmahun(飲食)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

“Lukus smudal”, hangan kingal kluwanan damac kuba.

Wada pspun hmanguc ka bunga tumun, ningjing, hhiyi mi nasi, kiya ka wada mndungus bay Asiyako, ngan damac niyi u ngalan dha muda snrnu bungka quri uuqun Kuba u ana manu ka pspuwan prrimax.

Caypu Kuba u wada dha ngalan ka quri ssalu damac, cyasu mi syangryaw Sipanya, kiya mi pspuwan dha uuqun tnualang dha nanaq, wada mangal uuda hongsaw Hwajn uri, pnsltudan quri idaw mi uqan chiya sediq Koriaw.

5 hun krtan pila mmahan sinaw, taxa mprimax sinaw ka wisu mprimax sinaw Mosito.

Quri so pnsltudan pa, ini sqita psnakan pusa damac ka sediq Kuba, mkan uqun u pspuwan chuwan kingal sara kana.

Idaw qalux sukay u wada dha ngalan “Idaw sediq Moar mi Kurisucyang” (Platillo Morros y Cristianos, qalux sukay u wisu rmibak mqalux ka rhiq hiyi sediq Moar; kiya mi bhuway idaw urmibak Kurisucyang sediq Sipanya, kiya ka mndungus bay pusu uuqun, duma qtaun bay ka pusu uuqun u blbun pacyaw, bunga qhuni, Kubasu meynpaw mi hiyi pnwalang mnniq kntlxan.

Niniku, tiping kdang, nyocu mi wasaw yeykuy ka pusu bay aji knux.

Tukubeycu damac u kiya ka knkana “Lukus smudan” (sntmuwan wawa dapa cyusan sama), muduh buru babuy, pciyus qraqil babuy, idaw muka hpuyan hiyi rodux, yangcong siyang syeynping mi sihwanryeyn prmaxan nayro.

Mniq alang tnqcurux mkngahu ucilung, pusu bay pnyahan qcurux ka tanpaycu dha, handay uqan dha idaw pa niqan qcurux ci, qcurux tyaw, qcurux cwen mi nduhan bolung beyhing.

Quri so shtur dha caninyey u wada knpriyux uqun dha uhay mkan damac pnsltudan.

Eyga(電影)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Tu20 seyki iyax tu40 dhuq 50 kngkawas cida, alaw ka eyga Amirika ka wada pstuq cucu, kiya mi wada tongcu eyga sucang Kuba.

Qqpahun quri eyga Kuba ka wada danan shtur ka pkrana niya.

Iyux muda mlatac qnrqilan, mpqpah eyga Kuba mi Mosiko eyga sediq cwangcwo ka msupu pseyga, pnspuwan dha pseyga pa niqan “Mkllu teynockay”, “Kani sptuting ka dsediq”, “Pnsluwan quri umey”.

Pnyahan pnatas(參考資料)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]