Kanada

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(Wada brahan dmudul paah Canada)
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Vertical triband (red, white, red) with a red maple leaf in the centre
Kwoci Kanada (加拿大國旗)
Kwohwey Kannada (國徽)

Canada(加拿大)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Gaga kska Daya Meycow ka Canada, 60 00 N, 95 00 W ka gaga na nniqan.

Kana ka knlbangan na o 9,984,670 sq km(hangan na o Tg2)

(knlbanga dxgal o 9,093,507 sq km, knlbangan qsiya o 891,163 sq km).

Kana ka sejiqun o niqan 35,362,905 hiyi.

Gaga Ottawa ka pusu alang paru, jiyax 1 idas 7 ka jiyax skrayan klwaan.

Manu ka dxgal Canada ga wada sugan 6.80% ka dxgal qpahan, 34.10% ka dxgal bbuyu, rahuq dxgal do niqan 59.10% na.

Bukung klwaan ta sayang o kiya ka Elizabeth II, pnaah hngkawas1952 idas 2 jiyax 6pnrajing kmlawa klwaan.

File:CAN orthographic.svg-Ida nkiya nniqan lnglingay.(自然地理位置)

cinkhulan sa knita’ sa brbiru’

Kanada(加拿大)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

GKanada(Eygo,Fayui,spuuyas IPA /ˈkænədə/(Ey)/kanada/Fa)). Pnugdungus knlangan Pemeco, dehuk gqiyan hido Taypingyang, musa daya Pepingyang. Mssipo quri hreyan hari hido daka dheran nTanmay Koringran. Thunac mqqapah di knlangan Mekuo dehuk gqiyan hido tdaya. Dehuk 998 wan 467 pingfangkongri knuglhangan na ka dheran Kananda. Gnlekan knubglangan knpruwan Tg.daha. Ngalan knmalu ngayan“Knlangan waso dara”ka Knanada. Wotayhuwa ka pngalan Tgkingal alang Sotu. Knkawas 2020 ngalan niqul seediq dehuk knkawas malix qpahan <Hupusu>.

Berih knkawas 1400 nniqan Yencuming ka Kanada. Puting 15 suci, prdingan musa mquri rcilung hreyan hido Pemeco ka Eykoku, Fakuo, ma pheyu dheran gnlekan knbgrahan. Knkawas 1763, bobo mhedu pncbuwan knkawas 7, yexun cpiqan kana dheram gnlekan knbgrhgan nFakuo quri Peme, hdiqan sbege Eykoku. Bobo mkmaxal knkawas, musa quri gqiyan hido hi tnlaman knbgrhangan Eykoku, dehuk dheran Taypingyang, ma pheyu msnpusan dheran knbgrahan. Knkawas 1867,idas 7 ali 1, knkawas 1867 spooda Senfafaan, pndkaan daha alang Antaresung, Kuwepekosung ka Kanada, msuupu di Snpurancuwe, Sinsukosiya tteru knbgurah nEykoku Peme ka luwan Renpang Kanadac. Bobo dhehuk kingal kbekuy knkawas, musa tuuman kana knbgrahan nEykoku pgluwan Renpang bataq saya ka Kanada.

Knkawas 1931,idas 12 ali 11,Spooda Siminfarin Eykoku, pkburux knlangan Kanada.Ani si Qbsuran ida naq Qbsuran Eykoku Ciyawcu 5 su, ma ida naq Kuohuwe Eykoku dmoi msmalu pnsGaya Kanada. Knkawas 1933, 1944, ooda skdesun seediq ma ooda skuudus seediq psgao beyax,psnaxun spooda Sufaweyen Sumiyen Eykoku hayan, kika hadun Knbgrawan Hoing nKanada. Knkawas 1982 idas 4 ali 17, Qbsuran Mqedil Eykoku mrulun Qbsuran Mqedil Kanada Irisapay 2 su, matis pnskari ptheruy Kuohuwe Kanada, ddooyan psmalu Gaya nKanada, ki betaq hini mhedu ka pnugeegul Kanada di Eykoku. Pooda pgeegul alang, Qbsuran pheyu nGaya ma, Psliyan pprngagan Knlangan Kanada. 10 Alang paru, 3 Alng gnyusan luwan pneegul, Qbsuran knlangan ma Qbsuran Kanada ka Irisapay 2 su Qbsuran Mqedil, Congtu ka pngalan kari Kanada ma sehu.Mrulun pskari Eygo ma Fayui ka Kanada, ngalang pnugeela kari ka Yencuming. Anu knbrawam gnyusan pnsbaang, knuglhangan ma, ango ka nniqun sseediq. Pkdamac yyahan pntheruy sseediq iicil ka knlangan nii. Ki pndkaan mrima dehuk kingal snpegan ka seediq mntuting knlangan icil mtheruy. Knklegan ba ka pnyahan sseeiq, kana pnGaya ini pntena ka knklangan duri. Knii egu hari ka tnheruy pnyahan Yaco.

Anu egu naq ppyahan ma paru pnkrana koci, stenge tntengi, pnkrana ppyahan ka Kanada. Spegan pnryuxan hbangan knklangan, mangal ngayan 16 pntbkuwan pnyahan ka sntkeyan; pnkrana sseediq, tnyuwan mangal ngayan 10 pntbkuwan. Spqita pntgesa, pnugklaan, sooda, knlmwyan skdesun ma, sooda pnyahan nsehu, mangal ngayan tberih pntbkuwan knklangan kana. Kndrmatan tuuman ooda knlangan, Renhoko, Petasiyangkongyecucu, Pemekongfang Suringpu, 7 Takongyekuwocucu, 20 Kuwo cituwan, Yataycingci Hocuocucu, Cingcihocuo di facancucu, Taingkuose, ma luwan pskari Fayui, kana gnyusan dheran rcilung Taypingyangkuo sspuwan pprngagan.

Ngayan(名稱)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kanada pnyahan kari Sung Rorunsuyirokue kesun Kanata. Dungus na “alang”, “psliyan”. Knkawas 1535, Yencuming meniq Kuwepekosu saya, madis seediq Fuwakuo Yako·Katiya mpuuruy musa Sutakona, ma tnngayun na Kanata ka dheran kii. Bobo na ka stiyu Canada ka Tuonakona “Qbsuran Sutatakona”qmlahang. Knkawas 1545, patis, titu Owco pngalan Kanada ka dheran nii. 17 sucu, ma mgeela 18 suci, Kanada stiyu dheran bgurah Faransi qliyan yayung Sungruorunsu. Spdngusan knciyuk Eykoku 13 seediq tndheran knbgrahan, knkawas 1774 pgkela Kuwepekofaan ka sehu Eykoku. PnGaya ni spnkrnaan dheran thunac 5 rcilung, musa betaq yayung Ohayo knthyaan. Kana dheran nii bniqan knkawas 1783 hani mntuting Mekuo. Ani si dheran quri tgdaya, Antaresung, htiyan nanaq Eykoku.Bobo gnlekan mangal na Eykoku ka bgurah Faransi, spdaha ka Kanada, kesun tdaya Kanada daha ka thunac Kanada. Knkawas 1841, pspuwan kesun Kanada ka kana daha di.

Knkawas 1867, pgluwan kesun Cucuring ka Kanada sung, Sinpurancuwe ma Sinsukosiya. Kndudun smnegul ptaalix Eykoku, dmudul naq mangal ngayan Kanada kana ka spatis daha kobung, ma pnugaya nsehu Kanada. Knkawas 1982, smmesung tntingan ali Kanada, pryuxan Kanada ka ngayan na Cucuring.

Pntheruy(歷史)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Knkdesan nYecuming(原住民時期)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Spooda tlaman Kawkuse daka ptaso patis pnlutuc, qnbsyaqan maha berih knkawas 24,500, tdaya Yuikong klaan niqal seediq muudus, qtaan kndesan seediq meniq Antare, snolan muui maha musa kongyencen 7,500. Hniti ndaan Cmucac Breenun Koro daka Lhengo Ranyui, ki si bale babale mnugeela nniqan nrudan ba seediq ncbeyo ka Kanada. Dnooyan pnkdesan nYecuming kana ka nnniqal, tnbulan pnhuma, mllamu nniqal pnsliyan, ma eluw bbrigan. Doma wada naq mhurah pnyahan Kanada  di pnugbgrahan seediq Oco ka pnGaya nYencuming. Sgtange tikuh knriyan ttlaman ndaan Kawkuse ka pnGaya kkiya. Mgeela meyah meniq pgbgurah Kanada seediq Oco, snpegan kana Yencuming ge 20 wan  betaq 200 wan. Snpegan Fangciya Yencuming Cenkangweyenhuwe Canada, saya dehuk 50 wan ka Yencuming meniq Kanada.

Anu uka gnbaang kkrnexan hei seediq, mnarux nadis seediq meyah pkbgurah dheran Yencuming, mreeru stliyus, hasika, tenhuwa, asi maku meelih 40-80% ka Yencuming. Saya meniq Canada lutuc pnugeela Yencuming, seediq Ingnuyito, ma seediq Meti. Seediq Meti ge, lutuc mggimax dara di Yencuming ma lutuc Fayi Kanada . Pssengan di Yencuming, ango hari mnsdaling seediq pnkbgurah Oco ka seediq Ingnuyito.

Pnkbgrahan seediq Oco(歐洲殖民時期)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:Benjamin West 005.jpg-班傑明·委斯特的名畫《沃夫將軍之死》,此畫反映1759年在魁北克發生的亞伯拉罕平原戰役

<Hnqilan nWohu ciyangciyun>, jiyuga na Panjeming·Wesuto. Irih pnsgagi ndaan Kuwepeko knkawas 1759, kongyen knkawas 1000, pncbuwan breenux Yaporahan, mgeela qmleqah Kanada nseediq Oco. Tanah ngudus Ayjuweko pnheyu tikuh nniqqun Ransayawcu dheran speriq Niyofunrantaw. Kndalax knbgrahan nPeo bsiyaq ini psdaling Kanada di Oco, betaq knkawas 1497, seediq Yitari Ciyawako· Kapoto(John Cabot) mpuuyu kyrcilung Kanada tiril Tasiyang Inkoran. Berih 16 suci, Pasuko di seediq Putawya mtalang rcilung, pheyu tmkarac kyrcilung Tasiyang ngngalan cingyui, qqcurux.

Knkawas 1534, Yako· Katiya(Jacques Cartier), seediq Fakuo mpuyu rmigo Sungrorunsuwan, idas 7 ali 24,mangal ngayan Qbsuran Fakuo Faransuowa 1 su gmayus mangal dheran hiya. Knkawas 1583, seediq Eykoku Cesu Hanhuoray·Cipoarto, pheyu nniqan saya Sungyehan Niyohunran, mrengo mesa nii si bale mgeela pnugrahan dheran Peme Eykoku. Bobo na seediq Fakuo Sanmu·To·Sangpuran mpuuyu mprigo msaanak knkawas 1605, nSinsukosuyasung Hangciyakang, ma knkawas 1608, musa alang Kuwepekosung Kuwepekosu, pheyu pnrdingan nsaan meniq seediq Oco Peme. Gnyusan SinFaransi, pnkrana lutuc Fayi Kanada kyyayung Sunrorunsu, prading meniq Tasiyangsung seediq Akatiya. Mptgesa Dori, ma seediq gnbaruy qraqil prading musa muuyu rmigo 5 Tahu, Hatosunwan, kana qlliyan yayung Misisipi. Bobo mdeka 17 suci mppgeeluk ddooyan kenri gnbaruy qraqil, alang Aarkangcing, alang Yirokuwe, gntange Eykoku, Horan, ma Fakuo smdiyan pncbuwan Huri.

Knkawas 1610, egu dheran knbgurahan Niyohuran ka Eykoku.Ini qbsiyaq, pheyu 13 knbgurah dheran thunac . Ani si, knkawas 1689-1763, Ptotuy mccebu dheran knbgurah Pemeco. Ki bobo na mslutuc pncbuwan Pemeco, irih sgeela ddaan Mccebu 7 knkawas . Pnrngagan Bobo na Parihoye speeyux cmepiq kana ka dheran knbgrahan Pemeco nFakuo sbege Eykoku. Knkawas 1763 pnklaan Hangciya Senyen mswae Sinfaransi Kuwepeko Sung, ma Puretunciyawtaw pspuwan Sinsukosiya . Sung Yehansutaw(Kika Aytohuwataw saya) knkawas 1769 pbrexan dheran knbgurah . Kcugun pksyanun tnalang Kuwepeko seediq lutuc Fayi Kanada daha ka spqrnutan seediq 13 dheran knbghaan knciyuk Eykoku, pgkela Kuwepekofaan knkawas 1774 Eykoku, theran quri Kuwepeko sqdisan betaq 5 Lnguwan, ma yayung Ohayo. Ma sperdingan pheyu nniqul Fayi, Snhei Tensikiyo, ma Fakuosumingfa ka Kuwepeko. Ani si mrriyung wada so sdayo knciyuk Eykoku ka seediq 13 tndheran knbgrahan.

File:Fathers of Confederation LAC c001855.jpg-勞勃·哈里斯所畫的聯邦之父(1884),這幅畫反應在1864年舉行的查洛頓會議

Knkawas 1783 Matis patis Paritiyawyue smruwa pkburux Mekuo, ma kana 5 Lungwan thunac cpiqan sbege Mekuo. Cpiqan Sinsukosiya gyusan kndalax Sinpurancuwe spdheran nHangsu. Dungus pkmalu lnlungan seediq meniq Kuwepeko Lutuc Eykoku Kanada. Knkawas 1791 pgkela bgurah Senfafaan sehu Eykoku, sugan pskari Eygo ka tdaya Kanada, pskari Fayui ka thunac Kanada. Ma pksnaxun naq ka bbtaqun daha Rifacen, ki bobo na ka mtdaha kesun ka  Antare ma Kuwepeko saya. Nujiyuga pnuglaan Renpangcuhu Ropoto·Harisu(1884), ida mrengo ndaan pnrngagan Carotun knkawas 1864. Pnccebu knkawas 1812, mccebu Eykoku di Mekuo, Kanada ka pncbuwan bbale. Bobo pncebu, rahur seediq Eykoku di  Ayarran musa mtheruy Kanada. Knkawas 1825-1846, niqal 626,628 ka seediq Owco theruy remux Kanada. Truma niqal kana mqqduriq knuure seediq Ayarran ma, qduriq Kawticingsi seediq Sukoran. Ani si, seediq tnheruy knkawas 1891 sugan pnsepac, pntteru, kkingal wada mhuqil mnarux mreeru.

Pnugdngusan psmyahun pnqlahang nsehu, knkawas 1837 tutuy knciyuk ka seediq Kanada. Ndaan pkseesu nciyosa na Siyunce Talomu,“ Pntaso nEykoku Pemesuusuo”. Mege kari psryuxi Uncocu ka sehu mqlahang, ma psnolun ka lutuc Fayi Kanada, psrwaun dmui pnkari ma pGaya nEykoku. Thei kari nSiyungce Talomu ka sehu Eykoku, ma pgkela Renhofaan knkawas 1840, pggrahun kingal Kanada sung ka tdaya, thunac Kanada. Knkawas 1849, spheyu ma pngalan kari nEykoku Peme ka sehu. Knkawas 1846, matis patis Olokang Tiyawye Eykoku di Mekuo, pgayus Peuwe 49 tu Mekuo di nEykoku quri gqiyan hido. Tiyawye nii pnkseesu qnbsiyaqn ba pnuglekan ssiyo dheran nEukoku ma Mekuo. Ma irih pnugeela sneelu knbguran pheyu dheran Unkohuwataw ma, dheran Poreten Korunpiya.  

Pnkluwan Renpang daka pnkrnaan(聯邦的組成及擴張)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:Canada provinces evolution 2.gif-加拿大行政區劃的變化

Mnspusan pnrngagan pheyu Senfa, knkawas 1867 idas 7 ali 1, spooda Senfafaan. Pnugrahan nEykoku Peme Kanada, Kanada Sung, Sinpurancuwe Sung, Sinsukosiya Sung pkluwan Kanada. Mangal kenri pqlahang pnugbrahan Robotoringti ma dheran Siputifang, pspuwan Siputifang kesun. Ndaan nii skciyuk tndheran seediq Meti. Knkawas 1870 idas 7 pstotuy knckanan Hongho, ma pheyu cnpiqan Sipetifang Mannitopa Sung. Pesu Sung “Dheran Knbgrahan Pureten Korunpiya ma Unkohuwataw pnsuupu knkawas 1866 ”tuuma Renpang. Mkdaha knkawas, tuuman Renpang ka Aytohuwataw duri.

Mgeela mpqlahang Cuwang·Yarisanta·Maytanglaw daka Luwan na Pawsotang pheyu ngngalan jeking pnyahan knklangan pnsbaang bnugurah sqeepah slmeyan Kanada. Pgdngusan pkbgurah gqiyan hido, sdayo pnyahan sehu Kanada ddaan pnbaang eluw kisiya “Kana eluw kisiya Taypingyang Kanada”, ma spdungus ooda pnGaya dheran Cucuring, knbgurah Breenux paru. Irih pkbaang sqlhangan seci dheran, pheyu Sipe Santicingcacyi nsehu Kanada. Knkawas 1898, pstotuy kmari kiing Kolangtayko, rahur seediq Sipe dehuk mtheruy Kanada. Pnrdingal nii ptaalix Siperingti pheyu Yikongtici. Dndulan Wearforito·Lawrear, prdingan seediq Oco meyah meniq Breenux paru hini. Ki spheyu knkawas 1905 Yapota Sung ma Sasukoco Sung.

Berih 20 suci pnteru(20世紀早期 分三段)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Berih 20 suci, dheran nKanada dooyan naq Eykoku ka oda Wayciyawsuu.  mccebu 1 can di Tokuo ka Eykoku, smnegul Kanada. Sggulan musa mgsupi quri pcbuwan gqiyan hido hiya, bobo na mluwan supi Kanana. Luwan supi ni ka Lekuh pncbuwan Wemiring. Pntuuman mccebu seediq Kanada 650,000, 60,000 hari hnqilan pncbuwan, 173,000 ka pnqluqah. Knkawas 1917, Mdudul Pawsotang Ropoto·Rayarto·Potung pooda meyux ngalan supi seediq Fayi Kuwepeko, pstutuy Cungpingweci, ddilan kana ka pprngagan ppyasan Fayi, pnkriyux pnyahan seediq Kuwepeko, tglayan naq Cuyotang. Bobo knkawas 1917, mangal bntaqan Renhotang Dndulan na Ropoto. Knkawas 1919, tbrexan Eykoku Kanada remux Kuocirenmong. Knbbukuy knkawas 1931 Siming Faan ptbale knlangan ka Kanada.

File:Canadian tank and soldiers Vimy 1917.jpg-1917年,加拿大士兵與一輛馬克II型坦克在維米嶺戰役中

Knkawas 1930 ddilan uka ppyahan Kanada. Pndaan uka speeyah, Hocoso Renpang Renhohuwe, knkawas 40-50, knklegan pnckulan Sohuwe furicungco Sasukocoun Sung. Mccebu 2 can, Cuyodang Weren·Reang·Maykunci·Cing Dmudun Kanada mpcebu di Tokuo. Pnugaan supi nKanada, knkawas 1939 idas 12 dnhekan nEykoku. Supi Kanada ndaan mccebu, kana pncbuwan Tiyepu, kmremux Itari, pncbuwan Nomanti, mccebu Taciyuncu, ma pncbuwan Suhayarto. Ngalan Tokuo Horan ciida, pnbaaang Canada ka Wangsu Horan, bobo gnlekan kndalax Nacuy Tokuo ka Horan. Pncbuwan 2 can, snlmeyan qyqeya scebu, pnkbeyaq supi Kanada, Eykoku, Conghuwamingko, kana di Suren, pngkere ppyahan Canada. Knkawas 1944, anaq ptutuy Cungpingweci, bobo pncbuwan, mkere ppyahan, ma dmoi kingal knkere supi ka Kanada di.

Kanada Hndure(現代加拿大)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Knkawas 1949, dheran sqlahang naq Niyofunran “Niyofunran ma Lapulatuwo saya”Remux Renpang Kanada . Pnkrana ppyahan nCanada, kana beyax naq ptalang Kanada. Knkawas 1965, pkryaan Hata ka Waso dara. Knkawas 1969 pooda Suwangyui cungco, knkawas 1971 pooda Tuoyen unhuwa cungco. Pprngagan dungal ka Sohuwe Huricungco, kana so hoken spqita ising, oda dnhekan knkawas qnpahan, taykuang spuuyas laqi. Ani si skciyuk duma suncunghu, malan ba ka Kuwepeko daka Yapota suncunghu, hili mesa mcepiq pkmremux knlhangan daha ka Cunghu Renpang.

File:Alexander-NFLD.jpg-加拿大總督哈羅德·亞歷山大(中間)在總督府接收把紐芬蘭併入加拿大的議案(1949年3月31日)

Berih knkawas 1982,phelan Ingsupemefa ka pnGaya nKanada, msnpusan pnrngagan snlmeyan Senfa, dehuk knkawas 1982 qulung niqal naq ka nSenfa daha. Ciida ka sqita pnttingan Kenri nseediq Kanada ma Cuyosencang. Knkawas 1999, skdakan seediq Ingnuyito di Renpangcunghu, mtburux kndalax Sipetifang ka Nunafuto, gyusan dheran tgteru nKanada. Ciida duri, 20 suci knkawas 60, pstotuy Cicingkoming Kuwepeko, dndilan na kana ka kdkilan, ma ptotuy Kuwepeko Mingcucuyiyuntong. Snhei Makosucuyi sgcuqi tiril Kongpucucu Kuwepeko Cefangcungsen,mnegu knremux ka sncugan, noda knpruwan na ka knkawas 1970 Suyeweci. Knkawas 1976, pkburux Kuwepeko seediq Kuwepekotang mangal bnetaq, ma knkawas 1980 spooda Cenming sbrexun Kuwepeko, ani si wada ini dehuk. Knkawas 1990, knkingal Sung pkseesu Kuwepeko Mingcucuyi, tlaman spooda Micihuseting smmalu Senfa, wada ini pdai.

Pnciyu kari, pheyu Repang Cungtang Kuwejun Cungtuwan Kuwepeko, pheyu Kanada kaykotang ka SiKanada. Knkawas 1995, pooda Cenmingkongto dungal ka Kuwepekotang, wana naq 49.4% bntaqan ini dehuk. Knkawas 1997, Kawtungfayen uxe pnGaya pnklaan, bobo na spooda Kuohuwe Kanada Cingsinfaan, kana pnrngagan asi naq spooda Cenming kongce, Kuwepeko di sehu Kanada,ki ka musa prngagan mpaalix Repang. Ddooyan kenri NKuwepeko, knkawas 80 mhiti ma knkawas 90, mgeela, mnetur pnskluwi Sohuwesucen. Truma nii kana pnsipaq ndaan knpruwan ba nKanada, Intu Hangkong 182 haw Panci Kongnan; knkawas 1989 pnsipaq Mongtoro Kongcungseyen; knkawas 1990 Awkaweci, Mgeexan pnrdingan tglayan nLuwan Yencuming di sehu Kanada.

Knkawas 1990, tuuman mccebu Posuwan Kanada duri, kndrumuc tuuman Wehojnwu, kana berih Nansurahu Wehosintong . Knkawas 2001, Posa supi Ahuhan Kanada, Ani si mlawa ptuuman Mccebu Irako Kanada, malix Kanada. Knkawas 2009, dndilan naqah speeyan Kanada duri, ani si saya pkberih malu. Knkawas 2011, tuuman smnegul dndulan Peye dmoi qyqeya musa snbale Ripiya Necan ka Kanada.

Kddesun(地理)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:Canada-satellite.jpg-加拿大的衛星圖。 針葉林布滿整個加拿大盾地,冰河覆蓋著北極。大平原和五大湖在南部,這裡同時集中全國近一半的人口

Dhehuk tdaya Pemeco dheran gnyusan na Kanada, kndalax gqiyan hido kyuTaypingyang musa betaq hreyan hido Tasiyang, tdaya mlutuc Pepingyang. Koringran ga tongpepu, Sung Piye ma Mikorongciyuntaw Ga tghunac na Niyohunran. Knglahang spegan dheran (kana ddheran ma rrcilung) Kanada, meniq berih klangan tgdaha knparu, tgbukuy naq Oruosu; spegan gnlahan ndheran nanaq, mangal berih klangal tgsepac. Kndalax knkawas 1925, pgkela dheran Peci Kadana kndalax sicing 60 tu - 114 tu. Ani si rahun ini psruwa.Dmoi dheran niqal seediq tdaya. ga Ayarsumiartaw niqal Cingpawcan supi Kanada, dehuk pewe 82.5 tu, meyah 800 km dhekan knyusan tndaya. Niqal qnddisan ba kyrcilung klangan ka Kanada; 202,080 km(5,525mi) ka snpegan qndisan.

Kndalax tnhdaan ciida, niqal 8 knklegan lmiqu ini pntena.Truma niqal kdkilan waso mgqumi Kanada Tunti. Kdhaan niqul di Mekuo knpruwan pnktbkuwan tberih klangan Lnguwan Supire (spegan knglahang), maha bale 82,100 km²(31,700 mi²), knlangan nii egu ba ppyahan qsiya bale. Ma niqal ga skuun Luwocisanmay, Hayansanmay truma ka qsiya bale duri. Msriko ba dheran Kanada, egu mrunun kana huohosan. Knkawas 1775, mperuq huwohosan Suaykosu alang tdaya na Pesu Sung, paru ba snliqan na pnyahan, wada bale 2000 seediq Nisuciya mgedang, sliqan kana ka alang ayu yayung Nasu.

Nadis qnlliyan mperuq runun huosan dehuk 22.5 km(14.0 mi), kari pnsltulan seediq Nisuciya, qnliyan runun spwan na ka yayung Nasu mesa. Kndexan niqul seediq Kanada, knkingal km² 3.41 seediq. (knkingal  mi² dehuk 8.83seediq), klegan muango seediq kklangan.Unsacolang ka mknedux niqaul seediq, ga thunac Kuwepeko Sung, Nanantare, ma mtgarang yayung Sungrorunsu, ma kyrima lnguwan. Anu knglahang ma knllegang ini pntena karac ka dheran Kanada. Msekuy ba rriyung da misan, moto ba meniq quri truma daka breenux paru, diyan dehuk -15°C(5°F), musa -40°C(-40°F)da knsekuy bale ka patis tnyuan. Mquri mtheya ssiyo, dehuk mceka knkawas bungan huda ka dheran, mslutuc knkawas bnngan huda ka quri tdaya. Kurcilung Penansung, so ka Unkohuwa, muuxun ka karac. Quri kyyayung hreyan hido, pntnaan kntlexan maha 20°C(68°F). Dheran mtruma, rbagan pntnaan ka kntlexan musa 25~30°C(77~86°F), mncugin mnkala 40°C(104 °F).

Seji(政治)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:Canadian parliament MAM.JPG-位於渥太華的國會山莊

Sehu Kanada Ihuwecu, pnheyu Senfa Qbsuran, mangal Sancenhuri pnhyegan. Qbsuran Kanada pnyahan, Rifacen, Sufacen, ma Singcungcen. Irisapay 2 su ka Qbsuran Maedil saya.Ma Qbsuran 15 knlangan Tnbrexan na Taingkuose duri. Anu meniq Inkuo ka Qbsuran Mqedil Kanada, snugulan na Congtu ka Pngalan na kenri ooda. Uka kenri meniq sehu ka lutuc Hangsu. Dooyan Neko ka Singcungcen knlangan. Kingal Luwan knlangan Tacun, ma Giing Siya Yiyen, sdudul Congri ka Weyenhuwe, ani si niqal tikuh kenri ka Congtu, ma Qbsuran, pdooyan da meniq so ooda paru. Ki Congtu pheyu Congri pgkere sehu. Qpahan Congri ka niqal kenri kingal Ciko, Rifa Tian, psgagun Congtu, Sungtu, Giing Sangyiyen, Renpang Cuwekawfayen Tafakuwan, Kuoingciye, ma seediq Mpdudul Ciko.

Giing Siyayiyen Kanada bntaqan seediq knkdheran iicil, sbetaq sseediq “mege kari”Congri pttoyan Congtu, mk4 knkwas mtexa, ma so sseediq “mege kari”Congri pttoyan Congtu, mk4 knkwas mtexa, ma so ini snhei Kuohuwe de sptoyan nanaq. 105 Giing Sang Yiyen bntaqan ini pntena pnyahan dheran, 75 knkawan ka maalix qqpahan. Mneegu mangal tnloongan Siya Yiyen Mndudul knkingal Tangkuwe, maangal tloongan pkciyuk Tangcusi na pukung Kanada,tloongan nii,mgeegul oda di Yihuwe, psbaang sehu ini pgGaya. Knkawas 2015, sbetaq senkiyo Siya Yiyen 5 kana Cungtang bntaqan remux Siya Yiyen. Snaaxun so truma nii.

File:Cansenate.jpg-在國會山莊內的上議院

Cuyotang Kanada(Eygo,:Liberal Party of Canada;Fayui:Parti libéral du Canada,Congcenpay, Cucungtang)Pawsotang Kanada(Eygo, Conservative Party of Canada;Fayui, Parti conservateur du Canada,truma tnarac Cucungtang, Bukung pkciyuk.)Sinmincutang Kanada(Eygo,New Democratic Party;Fayui, Nouveau Parti démocratique,Tiril cungtang Sohuwe Mincucuyi)Kuwejun cungtuwan(Fayui:Bloc Québécois,Pooda pkburux cungtang Kuwepeko)Ryuitang Kanada(Eygo,Green Party of Canada;Fayui, Parti vert du Canada,huwanpawcuyi Cungtang)Daha klegan sekining na sehu, Renpangcunghu, ma 10 Sungcunghu. Sung Yihuwe pooda 1 Yencu, mntena hari Renpang Yihuwe spooda. Dheran ttereu nKanada kkkingal naq Rifaciko daha. Ani si quri Sung, uka ba kenri daha Senfa, sngo b aka keri Senfa ka dheran gnyusan, ini pntena ka pnklekuh daha  duri.

Horicu(法律)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:Medal-Viki.jpg-印第安酋長勳章,用於紀念加拿大君主與原住民在1871年至1921年所簽署的11項條約

“Senfa Kanada” ka spgeela Senfa na Kanada, pnheyu pnatis Hricu, daka uxe pntasan Horicu. Knkawas 1867, pdaan Senfafaan pkdhaun Renpang Cunghu daka Sung Cunghu ka Kenri. Knkawas 1931, Siminfaan malan speeniq niqal Rifacucucen. Knkawas 1982, pdaan kingal naq Senfafan pnkburux Rifa, ptaalis sqlahang na Eykoku. Snlmeyan Faan kiya, psaan Jencen Kanada daka Cuyo Sencang, Sencang nii pgkere Cipuncenri Kongming Kanada. Bale ba uxe pglaan Sencang ka sehu, anu Jncen daka Cuyo Sencang ti33 tiyaw Kanada, srwaan pkciyuk duma Sencang Renpang Yihuwe, ma pngalan keri ka Sung Yihuwe.

Anaq uxe ba pntlayan, ptbale ba ka seediq Owco mgeela di Yencuming. Pnrdungan meyah knbgurah dheran Owco, ki prading sehu Eykoku di Yecuming pgkari. Bobo na ka knkingal patis spatis, so ka Ingtianfa, sbleqan skqehun niqal spooda pntbale. Truma na 11 Tiyawye, pntasan Qbsuran Canada “Qbsuran Mqedil Wetoriya, Aytohuwa 7 su, ma Ciyawcu 5 su tteru”, kana pntasan di Yencuming knkawas 1871-1921 knkngalan knkingan Tiyawye. Tiyawye nii snmalu Qbsuran Mqedil pnsuupu Singcungci daka Yencuming, ma spqlahang Yencuming Sufa Kanada, ma Pefang Facangpu. Knkawas 1982, Sefafaan ti35 tiyaw, malan spkere. Pnkere Tiyawye nii ka Yencuming, so ka Iriyaw Pawcen, ini ngali Jeking pngaalu.

File:Ottawa - ON - Oberster Gerichtshof von Kanada.jpg-在國會山西面的加拿大最高法院

Sufacikuwan Kanada niqal kenri pgkela Fari ma pkciyuk Pnrngagan Yihuwe faan. 9 Tafakuwan pnlawa Congri daka Sufapu, psgulan Congtu mqeepah, ma Sositafakuwan “ Pefuri·Maykoring, mgeela Mdudul Tafakuwan mqedil saya ”. Kana Fakuwan Kawtungfayen ma Sangsufayen, pssgulan na Repang Cunghu mqeepah. Kana Sunghun Kanada pooda Putongfa, wano kuwepeko sung pooda Suminfa. Singfa Kanada ka Knbobo knkingang Fari Sunghun. Anaq meniq naq knkingal Singsufayen ma Cufapumun ka Sung, dehuk pqlahang Sunghun ka Hangciya Ciping Kanada.

Wayciyaw ma oda supi(外交與軍事)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

75,000 Supi bale Kanada saya, supi Hope Ciyunjen ge 51,000. Luwan supi Kanada ge, Ruciyun Kanada, Hangciya Hayciyun Kanada, ma Hangciya Kongciyun Kanada. Knkawas 2011, sliqan hbangan supi maha hari 245 yi Ciyanatayen. Kanada di Mekuo, niqal qndisan ini psbangi gnyusan, mddayo ooda Ciyunsu, ma mpgtange knpruwan pnthyaqan gnbaruy ppryuxan bbrigan. Anaq so nii, pnkburux naq ooda Wayciyaw Cungco ka Kanada, so ka pgkere Wayciyaw Kuwansi di Kupa, ma ini sruwa pskagul supi musa Irako. Luwan nTaingkuose, ma pskari Fayui Kuocicucu, heya di Ingkuo, Fakuo ma berih knbgrahan di Ing, Fa, malu ba ka pntbele. Anu pncebu 2 can ciida, paru ba dnnayo pnlxanan na Horan, betaq saya ka pntbele na kiya.

File:US Navy 090425-M-9917S-314 Canadian Army soldiers assigned to Alpha Company, 3d Battalion, 22d Regiment of Special Purpose Marine Air Ground Task Force-24 depart a U.S. Navy landing craft air cushion (LCAC) and deploy onto Mayp.jpg-加拿大第二十二皇家軍團在UNITAS的軍事演習

Anu pgeegul di Taingtikuo daka Taingkuose, kana dndulan ndaan supi na Ingkuo Kanada, kana mndaha pncpuwan Poar, ma pncbuwan suce 2 can. Kndalax ciida, sooda na kana ka ddaan, ma msuupu di knlangan icil psbale oda klangan. Knlangan prdingan Renhukuo, ma Tasiyang kongyecucu ka heya duri. Cenga uxe mccebu ciida, tuuma Renhokuo Hancan Kanada duri, ma msuupu di Mekuo peheyu Peme Kongfang Suringpu, snbaang kmremux karac baro Suren ka Kanada duri. Knkawas 1955, pooda yensi supi mndaha mccebu quri Congtong ciida, Waysu Kuouputacun Rausuto·Piarsin “knkawas 1963 mangal bntaqan Congri Kanada” pndaan pnrngagan supi Weho Renhokuo pntbale mpcebu, mangal snadu Nopear pntbale 1957. Ki pnglaan ndaan Weho Renhokuo, Rausuto·Piarsin kesun seediq bnarah ka oda nii. Kndalax ciida betaq knkawas 1989, tuuman knkingal oda Weho Renhokuo ka Kanada, mnmriman. Ndaan oda Ruanta daka berih Nasurahu snkagun beyax supi ka Kanada duri. Ani si so nii ndaan pnskagul beyax supi knlangan icil duri, sndiyan pprngagan kari duri, kesu ka Somariyacoun knkawas 1993, paru ba ka pnkari.

Knkawas 1990, remux Luwan knlangan Meco Kanada, knkawas 200 idas 7, meniq Antare Unsasu mlawa msseli Cangu Huweyi Luwan nii, knkawas 2001 idas 4, meniq Kuwepekosu mlawa oda mnteru Meco Kuociya fonghuwe. Pgdungus di ptlbuwan kyutaypiyangci psdlingan ppyahun, tuuman remux Mpsuupu pprngagan ppyahan Yaco Taypingyang duri. Pnsgulan Renhukuo posa supi tuuman mccebu di Ahuhan, knkawas 2011 idas 7, prading splawa mpeelih supi. Pncbuwan nii, 158 supi mhuqil, kingal Wayciyawkuwan, daha mqeepah mdayo, ma kingal sinbunkisiya msnegul mccebu, kana snliqan hbangan ge 113 yi ciyayen. Knkawas 2007, di Itari,Ingkuo, Nowe ma Oruosu suupu pgkela hbangan 15 yimeyen, spooda pdayo knlangan kayfa Yimiyaw, ma mlawa knlangan icil psnegul ddaan oda nii.knkawas 2007 idas 8, prdingal tglayan Pecitencucen Oruosu Kanada, pnyahan ge sprigo rcilung truma na Oruosu, quri nii kndalax naq knkawas 1925, mpgasyus tndheran pkrana dheran na ka Kanada. Knkawas 2011 idas 3-10, sggulan Renhokuo tuuman Ripiya Necan Kanada. Knkawas 2014, prading musa Irako posa Kongciyun ma Tocong Putuwe, mccebu di knlangan Isuran ka Kanada duri.

File:HMCS Regina (FFH 334).jpg-在2004年環太平洋演習的哈利法克斯級巡防艦里賈納號

Niqal naq dndilan na meniq Kuocisuu ka Kanada, ngalan Congtung Ciyangkuo na Kuoci. Tuuman Renhokuo, kana Sucemawyicucu, Cingcihoco ma facancucu. Knkawas 1976, matis patis remux Kongming Cenri daka Cungcu Cenri Kuoci Kongye ka Kanada.

File:Political map of Canada zh-tc.png-Gnyusan sqlahang(行政區劃)

Gnyusan sqlahang(行政區劃)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Luwan kingal 10 sung, ma 3 tici Renpang ka Kanada. Sugan 4 ka ngalan bale sqlahang. Sipu Kanada, Cceka Kanada, Sunghun Tasiyang, ma Pepu Kanada. Sooda Iriyaw Pawsen, Sptgesa, Sohuwe Huri, egu hari ddooyan Cucucen ka Sunghuwe daha ka Tici. Pspuwan nngngalan jeking, egu ka nSung daka Renpang cunghu. Ango ba sehu knlangan so nii. Sehu Renpang dehuk pcikul horicu quri Sunghun, so ka Wesungfa Kanada, anaq so uxe daun sehu Sung, spooda daha. Sptena mege ssliqan hbangan knkngalan ppyahan nSung pkrihun oda dnnayo duri.

Knklegan maxal Sung :

  • Sung Yapota, “Eygo, Fayui, Alberta, pnheyu knkawas 1905, pntaalix kndalax Siputifang”
  • Sung Pesu, “Eygo, British Columbia. Fayui, Colombie-Britannique, Knkawas 1871 remux Renpang”
  • Sung Mannitopa, “Eygo, Fayui, Manitoba, knkawas 1870, pnheyu kndalax Siputifang.”
  • Sung Niyufunran ma Sung Lapulatuo, “Eygo, Newfoundland and Labrador, Fayui, Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador, knkawas 1949 remux Repang.”
  • Sung Sinpulancuwe “Eugo, New Brunswick, Fayui, Nouveau-Brunswick, knkawas 1867 remux Renpang.”
  • Sung Sinsukosiya, “Eugo, Nova Scotia, Fayui, Nouvelle-Écosse, knkawas 1867 remux Renpang.”
  • Sung Antare, “Eygo, Fayui, Ontario, knkawas 1867 Remux Renpang.”
  • Sung Aytohuwataw, “Eugo, Prince Edward Island, Fayui, le-du-Prince-Édouard, knkawas 1873 remux Renpang.”
  • Sung Kuwepekuo, “Fayui, Québec, Eygo, Quebec, knkawas 1867 remux Renpang.”
  • Sun Sasukocoun, “Eygo, Fayui, Saskatchewan, knkawas 1905 pnheyu kndalax Siputifang.”

Teru dheran gnyusan :

  • Dheran gnyusan Nunafuto, “Eygo, Fayui, Nunavut, knkawas 1999 pnheyu kndalax Siputifang.”
  • Dheran gnyusan Siputifang, “Eygo, Northwest Territories, Fayui, Territoires du Nord-Ouest, knkawas 1870 remux Renpang.”
  • Dheran gnyusan Yuikong, “Eygo, Fayui, Yukon, knkawas 1898 pnheyu kndalax Ringti Ropoto.”

Ppyahan(經濟)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:Canada FTAs.png-截至2009年,與加拿大有自由貿易協定的國家是深藍色,而還在談判階段的國家是青色,加拿大是綠色

Gingko Kanada ka pusu gingko na knlangan nii, sqlahang na Sutifun·Pulocu. Caycungtacun daka Kongyetacun, nTongcicyui Kanada ngalan spooda Caycungcihuwa. Toruntuo ka ppryuxan bbrigan, pntbkuwan tg7 knlangan Cungcen Ciyawyisuo. Betaq knkawas 2012, dehuk 1,577 ppriyux brigan kosi nToruntuo. Ppyaahn klangan tg10 Tacingciti ka Kanada. Knkawas 2015, sntkeyan Kuonemawo dehuk 1,550 wanyi meyan. Ppyahan na pngmaxan Luwan pkrana Cingcihoco daka Luwan 8 Takongyekuo duri, pnyahan musa 10 Mawyikuo truma,knbrawan pnyahan dehuk Kuocihuwa. Ppyahan Kanada pnugmaxan, Pnklaan Mekuo Cuwantong Cicinghuwe Cingci Cuyocusu, meniq berih na Mekuo daka kana hari Siokuociya. Ma mnoda ini dehuk ngngalan ka sntkeyan ciida. Knkawas 2008, cinkoo Kanada hmrinas 4429 yi meyen, truma na nii, 2808 yi meyen pnyahan qyqeya Mekuo, 117 yi meyen pnyahan qyqeya Jupun, 113 yi meyen pnyahan qyqeya Ingkuo. Knkawas 2009, Mawyisunca na ge 48 yi ciyayen, sqita daka knkawas 2008, Mawyisunca na ge 469 yi ciyayen.

Kndalax berih 20 suci, Cucawye, Caykuwangye ma Huuye pnkrana Kanada kndalax Nongyekuo, pryuxan kingal knlangan Kongyehuwa. So kana knlangan Ikayfa, ngngalan ppyahan Kanada ka Huuye, niqal 3/4 ka sqeepah daha ka huni. Ani si quri Icicanye, ini pntena di Ikayfa knlangan, Icicanye nCanada ge, oda ggeyu qhuni daka Suyokongye si bale ba ppyahan na ka Kanada. Kanada ge, knlangan Ikayfa, nuango Cukuo Nunyen knlangan ka heya duri. Mtheya Sunghun ssiyo Tasiyang, stenge snkuwan Nunyen Tenjanci, ma snkuwan  knkana suyo daka Nunyen Tenjanci ka Sung Yapota. Tndheran A,Ho nSapasuka Yuten, stngayan snkuwan pnkrana 13% suyo klangan. Meniq pnkraman snkuwan suyo Tg3 klangan, mhiti naq Wenejuwera daka Sauti Arapo. Kanada duri ngalan knlangan ppyahan kingal Cukuo Nongcanping ma Kuwangcan knpruwan knlangan. Knparu Snapu Speriq pyahan klangan siyawmay, yocay ma ppyahan pnhmaan ddemux ppuqun. Ma sin daka yu kuwang Cucankuo, cing, ne, ryui, kangcay, tekuwangsu, ciyawtan, ma kana cen.

File:Nafta.jpg-加拿大,美國和墨西哥政府的代表於1992年簽署北美自由貿易協定

Alang tdaya Pepu qnnaqah ba karac, kuwangcan daka qhuni ka ppyahan skdesun. Quri thunac na Nanpu, Antare Sung daka Kuwepeko Sung, pnraguh Cucawye pnkarana. Slmeyan Cicoye daka Fesingci ka paru ppyahan tnalang. Bobo pncbuwan Arcutacan, pggaluk ppyahan Kanada di Mekuo. Knkwas 1965, pntasan Meciya Cicocanping Mawyiseting spooda ddaha knlangan sslmeyan Cicokongye Mawyi Pencing. 20 suci knkawas 70, peruq Nungyenweci, ma kcugun sqlahang knlangan hbangang icil Cucawye, ptutuy Congri Piayar·Turutaw sehu na Cuyotang, smmalu oda Kuociya Nunyen Cihuwa ma Waykuo Tocu Suncaciko. Ani si 20 suci knkawas 80, Congri Cingpu Pawsotang Mating·Purayun·Maarroni malix oda Kuociya Nunyencihuwa, pryuxan Tocu Canada, psbeyax Waycu meyah Tocu Canada. Knkawas 1988, matis patis Canada di Mekuo, psserus pddaha knlangang Kuwansuwe, Meciya Cuyo Mawyiseting. Ma spkrana betaq Mosiko ka Cuyomawyici. Ckceka knkawas 90, Congri Cuyotang Jang·Koretian pskeruc ssliqan hbangan, kndudun qmhedu mege knbrexan knlangang.

Knkawas 2008, dndilan Cutayweci dehuk Kanada, ma paru pnkbrihan na ppyahan, mrana suyeri. Knkawas idas 10, dehuk 8.6% suyeri na Kanada. Ani si knkingal Sung ini pntena, Suyeri kndalax Sung Mannitopa wana 5.6%, musa knrbawan 17% ka Niyofunran daka Lapulatuo. Knkawas 2008-2010, meelih 16 wan ka qpahun bale, 22 wan ka uka qqpahan ani betaq knuwan. Knkawas 2010-2011 Caycung Nen, Cayu Renpang Canada 5567 yi meyen, spegun Caycung Nen di 2008-2009, 4637 yi meyen, pnkrana knbrexan hbangan na Kanada. Niqal dungal, Waycay Kanada knkawas 2010, tberih kndalax 410 yi meyen, musa betaq 1940 yi meyen. Anu Gingko nPawsotang Kanada daka berih sehu, niqal Caycungingyui, ma pnooda naq pkeelih Kuocaycungco, biciq hari ka dndilan pneelih ppyaha na di Luwan 8 Takongyekuo. Knkawas 2013, mseesu qtaan ppyahan Kanada, ani si, mthuwe ka pnkrana, sglaan Ocayweci daka knbrawan suyeri na Kawci. Mstena ciida duri, Renpang Cunghu, ma kana tndheran Canye, pnkrana musa betaq brigan knbgurah Yaco Sucang, pntalang knklegan Cuko Kanada. Knkawas 2011, Yaco tg2 knparu Cuko Sucang na Kanada, mtbukuy Mekuo nanaq. Ani si, pgdngusan pnkrana Cuko Suyo musa Congkuo, pnheyu hako Unciyaw Pekuwan shaqun Suyo Pekuwan ngalan kari pprngagan rrahur.

Koci(科技)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:STS-116 Payload (NASA S116-E-05364).jpg-2006年,安裝在發現號太空梭上的加拿大機械臂幫發現號執行STS-116任務

Knkawas 2011, posa hbangan maha hari 299 yi ciyayen Kanada ptlaman spraguh prdingan. Betaq knkawas 2012, mangal snadu Nopear pndkilan na Kanada, quri Uri, Huwase, ma Ise 14 seediq kana. Knkawas ciida, quri oda Paru Kuocising tiyawca, Koyen Curiyang, mangal ngayan klangan pntbkuwan tg4. Egu Kuocisin Kawkoci Kosi Kanada duri. Dmoi ngayan knklangan Kuoci Wangru pntbkuwan tg17, niqal hmrinas 2840 wan ka seeduq dmoi, 83%, irih snpegan kana hei seediq knkawas 2012. Quri ooda pntalang ddaun Taykong, kana Waytaykong, Singsing, ma ptalang Hankongcisu, ma Pkrana Wesingkoci, kndrmutan Kanada. Knkawas 1961, dehuk mnkala karac baro ka Yunce 1 haw, pntalang naq knlangan, mangal ngayan tg3, pheyu, smmalu, ma posa Jencaw Wesing musa Taykong ka Kanada. Tbukuy nudi Suren daka Mekuo. Knkawas 1984, Mayko·Cariaw, heya ka mgeela kesun Taykongjen Kanada. Knkawas 2013, 9Taykongjen Kanada, musa Taykong, hmrinas mn15 tuuman madis seediq oda snkyaan.

Tuuman oda pheyu Kuoci Taykongcan Kanada, ma mgeela mtluhe Taykong Cicijen. Pnheyu Kuoci Taykongcan ma Mekuo Hangkong daka Taykongcongsu, Taykongsuo Kanada Tapi, Kanada Tapi 2 haw ma Tukotohaw tu3 Cicijen. Knkawas 1960, Kosi Hanten koci Kanada, pgdungus marah bbrigan, ma smmalu knklegan wesing. So RADARSAT 1 haw ma 2 haw, ISIS Wesing ma MOST Wesing. Ciida duri, dhekan yenfa ma smmalu duma ddooyan Tankong Huce, so ka Hepuranto, pnckulan knkawas 1961, hmrinas 1 cencuka dnooyan.

Hei seediq(人口)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Pndaan snpegan hei seediq knkawas 2016, niqal 35,151,728 kana ka tnalang Kanada, daka knkawas 2011, mrana 5.0%, knkawas 1871,dehuk 10 pe mnnexan snpegan hei na Kanada. Kndalax pnheyu knlangan Kanada, kndudun mquri Sipu mrana ka hei seediq. Knkawas 1871, rahur seediq musa meniq  quri hreyan hido 4 Sunghun, “Antare, Kuwepeko, Sinpurancuwe,Sinsukosiya”, ma snpegan knkawas 2016 de, 1/3 seediq meniq Sung Snapo paru daka tuiril gqiyan hido hi, “Mannitopa, Sasukocoun, Yapota, ma Pesu”. 7 knlangan Luwan truma, Kanada ka tnnais ba pnkrana hei seediq. Knkkwas mrana 1%. Pspuun qmita hei seediq knkawas 2016 daka knkawas 2011, pnrana hei seediq ge,170 wan, seediq tnheruy ka pnkrana bale ka seediq Kanada,“maha 2/3 hari”, niqal 1/3 ge, pnkheruy naq pntuting.

Anu bbaro ka wetu, ki 80% rahur meniq thunac ka seediq, mstheya gnyusan di Mekuo “Ini spegi gnyusan Arasuciya”, ini hrinas 150km “93mi”. Hbaro meniq Kuwepekosu-Unsacolang, Pesu Sung hiqul breenux, ga Yapota Sung Kaciyari–Aytomong Colang. Pewe 83tu msderux dehuk 41tu Wetu na Kanada. Pewe 55tu ka rahur 95% niqul sseediq. So ka knlangan Ikayfa, seediq Kanada, kndudun knpriyux ka hei seediq duri, kndrudan peni. Mrana ka malix qnpahan dehuk knkawas, meelih ka seediq niqal beyax sqeepah, Knkawas 2006, 39.5 knkawas ka snpegan sptena knuudus na ka seediq Kanada. Knkawas 2011, 39.9 ka knkawas pnkrana skdesun. Knkawas 2013 de, pdehuk 81.5 knkawas ka pnkraman snpegan pkdesun na ka sseediq Kanada.

Pndaan snpegan hei seediq knkawas 2006, rahur pnyahan luwan Seediq Kanada ge,“Seediq Kanada”, “ini kesa Lutuc nrudan, rahur ka niqal dara Pureten Ing / Su / Aysantaw”, dehuk 32%. Seediq Ingyi Kanada 21%, Fayi Kanada 15.8%, Sukoranyi Kanada 15.1%, Ayarranyi Kanada 13.9%, Toyi Kanada 10.2%, Itari Kanada 4.6%, Huwayi Kanada 4.3%, Tiimingcu, 4.0%, Ukoranyi Kanada 3.9%, Horanyi Kanada 3.3%. Yani 600 Luwan ka Seediq ngalan Tiimingcu sehu. Pnkrana hei Yencuming, irih kndkilan 2pe hei seediq ka knlangal. Knkawas 2006, niqal 4% hei seediq srengo daha niqal dara Yencuming. Ma niqal 16.2% ka hei seediq uxe lutuc nuango Yoso Jencong. Knkawas 2006, kesun Ango lutuc Yoso Jencong nii ge, kana Nanyayi Kanada, Huwayi Kanada, Seediq mqalux, kana Seediq Lame. Knkawas 2001-2006, nuango hei seediq lutuc Yoso Jencong mrana 27.2%. Knkawas 1961, wada ini dehuk 2% ka Seediq Kanada “Maha bale 30wan seediq” maha kesun ango pnlutuc, ma Yencuming, ini dehuk 1% ka hei seediq.

Knkawas 2007, msdaling 1/5 “19.8%” ka seediq mntuting knlangan icil, truma nii msdaling 60% ka hani pntheruy Yaco “Kana Congtongtici”. Pntheruy Congkuo hari ka kana, Feryuiping ma Ingtu. Pnyahan snpegan Tongcici Kanada, knkawas 2031, lutuc nuang Yoso Jencong mpgayus congjenko 1/3. Nii maha mpstena Mekuo saya. Kingal klangan knegu seediq pntheruy ka Kanada duri. Anu pnyahan na knlangan nii, ddilan pntheruy Cingcicungco, ma Ciyating Yiming Cungco. Knkawas 2012, niqal 257,887 seediq pntheruy dehuk Kanada. Rahur seediq tnheruy meniq alang paru, Tuoruntuo, Mongtoru, Unkoguwa. Mkdamac seediq pnqraqil ka Kanada duri, snrwaan na meyah ka Nanming klangan spegun maha hmrinas 10%.

Snhei(宗教)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Pndaan snpegan hei seediq knkawas 2011, seediq Kanada snnhei Kiristo niqal 67.3% “Kana Sing Ciyaw, Tencu Ciyaw”, 38.7% knrahur ka seediq Snhei Ten Cuciyaw Kanada. Renho Ciyawhuwe Kanada, “ 7 cung snpegan ka msuupu pgeegul, Canglaw Ciyawhuwe Kanada, kana di Weri konghuwe Kanada, ma Kongrihuwe Kanada.” Msuupa Sinciyawpay tnalang, snhei seediq Congjenko 6.1%, ma 5.0% ka Sungkonghuwe Kanada, 1.9% ka Cinsinhuwe. Ma niqal 23.9% hari ka seediq uka so snhei. Niqal Snhei duma naq ka Isuran Ciyaw 3.2%, Ingtu Ciyaw 1.7%, Siko Ciyaw 1.4%, Fociyaw 1.3%, ma Yota Ciyaw 1.2%, ni ka Snpegan payhunpi knklegan Snhei Congjenko.

Stgesa(教育)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Stgesa Kanada ge, Knkingal Sung daka Tici ka mdudul. 5-7 knkawas betaq 16-18 knkawas, yexun spuuyas knkawas Kanada, pgkela 99% seediq mkela qmita patis da rudan. Knkawas 2011, 25-64 knkawas, niqal 88% pnyasan patis Kawcong ka snpegan. Pstnaun ndaan Luwan pnkrana Cingci Hoco dehuk 74% knbrawan. Knkawas 2002, 25-64 knkawas seediq Kanada, maha 43% niqal patis pnyasan Tacuwan. 25-34 knkawas truma, niqal 51% mnangan patis pnuuyas Tacuwan. Pndaan pngkela Kuociya Kuwangpo Kongsu, knkawas 2012, Knlangan Kanada paru ba ka pnyasan na meniq knklangan.

Pntlaman Kuoci snllhayan llaqi Cihuwa knlangan Kanada, knbbaro ba ngalan Luwan Cingci Hoco ma pnkrana ngalan pstena, rmabang ba ka suse, Kose, ma quri Yetu.

Kari(語言)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:Bilinguisme au Canada-fr.svg-加拿大語言分布;  英語人口–56.9%  英法雙語– 16.1%  法語– 21.3%  人口稀少區域

Spooda Jencen Kanada, ma Cuyosencang ti 16tiyaw daka Renpang Kuwanfang Yuiyefaan, Srengo Kari Bukung ge, Eygo ma Fayui, ma daan Suwangyui Cungco Kuwanfang ge, Kuwanfang Yuiyen Weyenhuwe. Eygo daka Fayui, meniq Renpangfayen, Kuohuwe, kana Renpangciko, mntena kana ka srengo. Baka ngngalan cuyen Tici, knkingal Kongming, anaq ciko maanu, niqal kenri spkari Eygo daka Fayui. Knkingal Sunghun daka Tici, niqal Bukung ptgesa pnkari Luwan ango ka sapah pyasan, saangal naq pnkari Luwan angal Kongming Kanada. Meniq Kanada, Eygo daka Fayui ka ngalan pprngagan. Maha 59.7% hari seediq Kanada pnkari nEygo. Ma niqal 23.2% seediq Kanada pnkari nFayui. Truma nii, 57.8% ge, pnkari Eygo nanaq. 22.1% wano naq Fayui ka srengo, ma 17.4% seediq mkela pnkari Eygo, ma Fayui. Niqal Soci 73.0% pnkari Eygo, ma duma Soci 23.6% pnkari Fayui.

Knkawas 1977, snrwaan Fayui Sencang, pheyu pskari Fayui ka Bukung Kuwepeko Sung. Hmrinas 85% seediq mkela mrengo Fayui seediq Kanana, ani si, maniq Antare Sung, Yapota Sung, ma Mannitopa Sung thunac, rahur ka seediq mrengo Fayui duri, Antare Sung meniq tbukuy Kuwepeko, Sunghun mkela mrengo Fayui Kanada. Sin Purancuwe Sung ka ngalan pnkari Bukung, mtburux pddaha pskari Eygo ma Fayui, seediq Akatiya pskari Fayui niqal Congjenko Sunghu 33%. Sinanpu na Sinsukosiya Sung, Aytohuwa Wangcutaw Sipu, Pureten Ciyawtaw, rahur ba niqul seediq Akatiya duri.

Duma Sunghun ini pgayus spkari daha, ani si niqal Sunhun Ciyawyui Ciko, Fating, ma kana Cunghuciko, Eygo ma Fayui ka sprngagan daha. Mannitopa, Antare, ma Kuwepeko smruwa pskari Eygo ma Fayui. Pngalan kari Rifaciko daka Pgkela Faryui, ani si meniq Antare, anaq pskari Fayui ka Bukung, ini hrinas Eugo. Meniq alang Kanada, niqal 11 Tii yuiyen, ma kana kari daha psnaxun phrinas 96 klegan ka kari pnsnaxan tnualang. Truma nii, wano naq kari Tori, kari Ingnuito, ma kari Awcepuwa ka rahur srengo seediq, ma wano naq ka kari ttru nii, kesun anq knuwan qnbsyaqan maha uxe mpgedang mesa ka kari daha. Ga Sipu Tifang, knklegan ka kari Yencuming ngalan srengo Bukung. Anu Kari Nuito prngagun riyung na Nunahuto, ma ngalan pnkari Bukung tnalang ka tteru kari nii duri. Knkawas 2011, dehuk hari 600 wan seediq Kanada ini kesa Eygo,Fayui pnkari nrudan, uxe pnkari Bukung nii, Hanyui daka Yeyui hmeri ttaan “ Dehuk 1,072,555 jen”, Pangcopu yui “430,705 ”, Sipanya yui “410,670”,Toyui “409,200”, ma Itari yui “407,490”.

Pngaya(文化)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

File:The Jack Pine, by Tom Thomson.jpg-湯姆·湯姆遜的作品北美短葉松,收藏於加拿大國家美術館

Rahur Mingmingcu ka Knlangan Kanada, mddidil knkingal Unhuw, ma sqlahang Senfa ka knkingal Unhuwa. Seediq Kuwepeko pgkragun daka naq tnseediq Kuwepeko, ini naq pntena tntikuh ka Pnugaya Kuwepeko daka Pnugaya ingsu Kanada. Qtaan kana knlangan truma, Pnugaya Masayko ttaan ka Kanada,Pnugaya Kanada, pneeyan knklegan Tici, Yencuming ma Luwan ini pntena dara kesun tntbale Cuunhuwa. Ma Cunghu Cungco,so ka Kongkong Iriyawsitong, Fecususing, kndrmatan Speelih Mqrinuc, Ptbeyax Psbaang Qmlahang Halung, ma Smruwa Msterung Tongsing, tmalang meniq berih snlmeyan pngaya nKanada.

Dheran knbgrahan na Ingkuo daka Fakuo ka ndaan Rekisi, dndilan 2 knlangan ni ma Yencuming ka pnaya nKanada. Rahur seediq Kanada pukrun daha qmita ka Tuoyen Unha, krwanun daha Unha Kanada ka nii duri. Mekuo Yuirosuye, ma kuxul ba meniq meti Ingsu pnugaya Kanada duri.Ma kuxul daha ba kana Unhuwa Canwu Kanada, ma Yuijen, niqal Mekuo daka knkuicil klangan duri. Pnkdkilan Pnugaya nii, ngalan spooda Renpang Cunhu, Faryui, Kosi Kuwangpo Kanada, Kuociya Teningcyui, Kuociya Kuwangpo Tensu Kanada, ma Tongsiyun Weyan di duma Ciko nii. Isuciya Kanada, paru ba ndaan na kesun Suce Isu, so ka mgeela knlangan njiyuga na Tangmu·Tamusiyun, ma njiyuga Luwan 7 Seediq. Hmrinas 10 knkawas mnjiyuga Kanada Sansuwehuwa ka Tangmusiyun, betaq knkawas 1917 mhuqil. Meniq ka mnjiyuga na Luwan 7 Seediq, Risiyang Cuyi daka Kuoming yisu ka sqita na sseediq, knkawas 1920 idas 5,Luwan nii, mgeexan sqita ka knbtunux daha. Knkawas 1950, ngalan sbege Waykuo Kuweping na Kanada sehu ka Isu Fongko na seediq Ingnuito nii.

File:Celine Dion Concert Singing Taking Chances 2008.jpg-席琳·狄翁在2008年蒙特婁演唱會上表演

Tnubu uyas na Kanada, egu ba ka mangal ngayan klangan psnmalu uyas, mtluhe tmubu, ma Luwan tmubu uyas. Pkela uyas tnubu nii ge, Kosi KKuwangpo tensu Kanada, ma mpqlahang Tongsiyun Weyenhuwe. Ldaxan Ingyece Kanada, mangal snadu Cuno, pndaan Cangpen Isu Kanada daka Koseseyen. Aykuo ingye Kanada, skdiyun betaq knkawas 1800, ini ba pntena ka Aykuokoci na di Ingkuo. Pnuglaan Aykuo ingye na Kanada ge, “Seediq paru pahung Kanada.”Pntasan knkawas 1812. Uyas knlangan “A, Kanada”Mnugeela kndalax Kuwepeko Sung Hucongtu Siawtuo·Ropitaye, pnrdingan ngalang Ali Kuwepeko. Ma ngalan uyas knlangan de, knkawas 1980.Tbuwan bnarah na Karikosa·Lawari, posa kocu ge, Atuoarhu·Pesi·Rutiar Cesu. Spuuyas uyas Faun ka mgeela, knkawas 1906, srnuwan Eygo ka uyas.

Ndaan Tiyui na Kanada, gimun musa 18 suci, knkawas 70. Undo knlangan nii ge, Ping ciyo daka Cyuikun ciyo. 8 knpruwan alang Kanada 7 ge, Tuoruntuo, Montoro, Unkohuwa, Wuotayhuwa, Kaciyari, Aytomongtun, ma Unnipo, niqal Kuociya Ping ciyo Renmong Cingingcen kana. Niqal ka undo qrasun seediq, so Pinghu, ma Ciyasu cociyo, Ciyasu Cuciyo Cuye Rensay ge, Ciyasu Cuciyo Rensay Kanada. Kaarhu ciyo, wang ciyo, Pang ciyo, Huwase, panciyo, Payciyo, Kanran ciyo, Insu cuciyo, ma rangciyo, kuxul stheyaq rriso, ani si ini keegu ka Cuye rengsay. kingal ba ka cuye pang ciyo tuwe na Kanada, Tuoruntuo Ranniyaw tuwe, ma kingal Cuye Rangciyo tuwe, Tuoruntuo Mongrong tuwe. Knkawas 1900, bobo prading Awyunhuwe, knkingal pssengan ini grahuq musa tuuman, ma pnoda paru  pssengan Kuoci, kana knkawas Mongtoro Awyunhuwe rbagan, knkawas 1988, Kaciyari Awyunhuwe misan, knkawas 2010, Unkohuwa Awyunhuwe misan, knkawas 1994, Ranciyo Cinpiyawsay klangan, knkawas 2007, U20 Sucepe Cuciyosay, knkawas 2015, Kuoci Cucong Nicu Sucepe.

Knlangan Kanada, pgeegul kdkilan, rekisi, ma Yencuming. Mangal waso qhuni dara pngyusan ndaan knlangan, giman musa betaq berih 18 suci. Puyu Waso dara hata Kanada cbeyo,saya. Ma Ihuncen ni Kuohuwe na Kanada. Ma niqal knlangan icil mangal Hori, Tayen Kanada, Qbheni Mtrebu, ma Hangciya Kanada Cicing. Snsemun ali Kanada, niqal snsemun knlangan, ma sunsemun ali knkingal alang. Egu ka snsemun ali quri Citu Ciyaw, so ka Krisumasu, ma ali pnqraqil Yesu. Niqal snsemun quri snhei icil, ngalan seediq knlangan duri. So ka Yotay Ciyaw, Isuran Ciyaw, ma Tongcung Ciyaw. Ali snqaras bubu, Ali snqaras tama, ali pskxelan, ali Sngpayciko, anaq ini gdregi ali, pkrun smmesung na seediq Kanada duri. Ali Smhuwe ge, snsemun na di Mekuo daka Kanada, dungus na smhuwe Tama baro mege stenge nnmehu. Ani si ini pntena ka ali smsemun daha. Knkingal knkawas  idas 11, gdregan ali knpitu 4 ka Ali na smhuwe ka Mekuo, knkingal knkawas idas 10, gdregan ali knpitu 1 ka Ali smsemun na Kanada, mntena ali dah aka Ali Korunpu na Mekuo.

Pnyahan pnatas(參考資料)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]