Burma

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Flag of Myanmar/Burma
Flag of Myanmar/Burma-Kwoci Menten (緬甸國旗)

Burma(緬甸)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Gaga kska Yacow ka Burma, 22 00 N, 98 00 E ka gaga na nniqan.

Kana ka knlbangan na o 676,578 sq km(hangan na o Tg40)

(knlbanga dxgal o 653,508 sq km, knlbangan qsiya o 23,070 sq km).

Kana ka sejiqun o niqan 56,890,418 hiyi.

Gaga Nay Pyi DawRangoon (Yangon) ka pusu alang paru, jiyax 4 idas 1 ka jiyax skrayan klwaan.

Manu ka dxgal Burma ga wada sugan 19.2% ka dxgal qpahan, 48.20% ka dxgal bbuyu, rahuq dxgal do niqan 32.60% na.

File:State seal of Myanmar.svg-Kwohwey. (國徽)

Bukung klwaan ta sayang o kiya ka Htin Kyaw, pnaah hngkawas2016 idas 3 jiyax 30pnrajing kmlawa klwaan.

File:Location Burma (Myanmar) ASEAN.svg- Ida nkiya nniqan lnglingay.(自然地理位置)

cinkhulan sa knita’ sa brbiru’

Risu(歷史)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Alang kesun Menten nii peni, yaani berah na knkawas saya ka 11,000 de cyosuci-sutay dige, tena niqan seediq ga meniq hiya di, ga slayan ssiyo yayung Irowati hii ka wunhwa-yicu daha we, ye ba wada 5,000 knkawas di. Risu na Menten nii we 4cucin pusu na: Mawncu, Piyawcu, Bamacu ma Taycu (Sancu kesun daha duri). Menten risu pntasan nG. E. Harvey we, pneeyah Daya-Intu ka alang Hoto mesa, egu bale ka gaya nIntu ga daha pguyun, ye ba bobo pnttingan Yesu dige peeyah Asamu nIntu meyah quri alang Menten hini.

Bobo qnlhangan Ingkwo ka Menten nii de, pntuayus seediq ka mesa “sangMenten” daka “syaMenten”. Kari daha we berah knkawas 200 saya, seediq Piyawcu nii we mremux tgdaya yayung nIrowati, dheya ka pqlahang eluw ddaan mbbaruy qyqeya Congkwo daka Ingtu. Knkawas 849 de seediq Menten ka rmirih qmlahang Piyawho-ryoyi di ma pheyu Pukancung. Knkawas 825 betaq 1757, kowang nMawncu ka qmlahang nanMenten.

Knkawas 1044 betaq 1287, kowang nMencu ka peeyah Pukancung qmlahang. Knkawas 1287, seyhu nYencaw we pheyu Mencong-singsung, qmlahang dheran quri narac daya hhreyan hido. Laxan na bobo de, pspuwan na sing-congsu-sung Yinan. Knkawas 1287 betaq 1531, kowang nSancu we peeyah ckceka Awayo nMenten qmlahang. Knkawas 1531 betaq 1752, Tongyi-wangcaw qmlahang Menten.

Knkawas 1752 betaq 1885, Kongpang-wangcaw qmlahang Menten. Knkawas 1824 betaq 1826, mngaya ba mccebu Ingkwo daka Menten, ini nseengi ka Menten ma, mbeyax ka Ingkwo. Knkawas 1875, mnspusal mccebu dungan ka Ingkwo daka Menten, mremux ka supi Ingkwo ma, ngalan nah ii ka duma dheran Menten. Knkawas 1875, alang quri hhreyan hido ka Korunni ka ngalan cucenkwo. [pnesa pnyahan] knkawas 1885(knkawas Cing-kwangsi 11), mnteru pncbuwan Ingkwo daka Menten de, wada ngalan Ingkwo kana ka Menten di, kika sposa na dheran taing-tikwo kesun Ingtu-ringti ka Menten, ririh so kingal sungfun nIngtu di. Mkela ka Yinan congtu Ceng yi-ing de, posa patis baro, congsu na seyhu ta Cing-tikwo ga meniq Ingkwo Cung ci-co smciyuk seyhu Ingkwo ma, uka brahan. Knkawas 1886 (knkawas Cing-kwangsi 12 idas 6), pgdehu matis patis Pecing hiya ka Congkwo daka Ingkwo, patis kesun “Cong-Ing-Menten tyawye”, smruwa niqan cupecen Menten ka Ingkwo, ani si Menten daka Congkwo we so naq cuuxan ka dheya dungan, knmaxal knkawas de mosa cingkong Congkwo ka Menten. Ini ptuayus ka Congkwo daka Menten nana, prngagun daha naq bobo ka kiya di.

Knkawas 1890 betaq 1947, Hwepang daka Wapang ka pawhukwo na Ingkwo. Pswayan kesun singcungci ka alang Kocingpang ma Cingpang, knkawas 1894, Se hu-cung daka Ingkwo matis patis mpgdehu kesun daha “Cong-Ing tenmen-sangwu-tyawkwan” so Runtun hiya. Knkawas 1894, slmeun daha ka patis pnugdehu daha ma, paha patis sangwu-koswe tyawwu. Menten nii de ga asi qlhangi nIngkwo di ma, riirh so kingal alang qqlhangan nIngkwo di, Ingtu ka smkagul seediq pqlahang Menten. Knkawas 1937 idas 4 ali 1, paha “Ingtu cunghu-hwa”Ingtu, kika wada pswayan Ingsu-Ingtu ka Menten, ma, punpu taIng-tikwo ka Menten di.

Knkawas 1941 idas 12 ali 23, matis patis “Cong-Ing kongtong-hwayi tenmenru-seting” ka congkwo daka Ingkwo, kika niqan cinsu-tongmong ka dheya di, dmayo Ingkwo hmetir Zupun-hwesisu ka Congkwo meniq Tenmen (nIngkwo ciida) hiya, spooda na dmnayo nii ka qqlahang na quri bukuy na iril hanac nCongkwo nii, smmalu kingal Congkwo yencung-cun. Nii ka pnyugan daha cunsu-hoco ka Congkwo daka mongkwo na. kndalax paha supi na remux Menten ka Congkwo nii di we, 3 knkawas ma 3 idas ka pnccbuwan daha, 40wan ka supi skgulan mosa Congkwo nii, Knkawas 1942, supi dndulan na Wongsang-honiwwun ka pngeela supi Tanah Tunux ka meyah mangal Menten.

Knkawas 1943 idas 8 ali 1, paha kari ka seyhu Tanah Tunux, mpheyu seyhu Menten ma mpdayo hwacan-kwocya-cingci nMenten. Knkawas 1944 idas 2, Wongsan mimicucu we smalu “fanFasisu-zenming cuyo-renming”. Knkawas 1945 idas 3 ali 27, “fanFasisu-zenming cuyo-renming” dige, pstotuy mpkciyuk Tanah Tunux. Idas 8 ali 15, mhiti na tiarcu-sucetacan di we, wada utyawcen-towsyan ka Tanah Tunux di, kbberih meyah Menten ka Ingkwo dugnan. Idas 10 ali 16, nkiya naq congtu Menten ka Smisu cesu(Sir Reginald Dorman-Smith) kbberih meyah Menten, dmoi supi qmlahang. Idas 11, pheyu ringsu-cunghu, Wongsan ka congri na. Bobo na, wada msgaliq ka “fanFasisu-zenming cuyo-renming”, kika wada uka ka ringsu-cunghu duri di. Knkawas 1946 idas 8, Ransu cyangcun(General Sir Robert Rance) ka pyahan mgcongtu daha. Smpusal pheyu ringsu cunghu, Wongsan ka congri Menten.

Knkawas 1947, meyah msseli alang Sanrong nSanpang kana ka Kocinpang, Cinpang ma punpu na Menten, meyah matis “Sangrong-seyi”, dungus na seyi nii we, msuupu sangMenten, Hwepang, Kocinpang, Cinpang dunii, suupu quri Ingkwo mesa mpturi. Idas 7 ali 19, Wongsan cyacun daka 6 koyen na wada gruusun smripaq. Knkawas 1948 idas 1 ali 4: peeyah ciida ka wada mlatac qnlhangan hmrinas 60 knkawas Ingkwo ka Menten nii, kika paha kari mesa pheyu nami Menten renpang konghokwo, Su zuwe-tay ka mngaya ba congtong Menten. Knkawas 1948 betaq 1958, tunux na “fanFasisu-zenming cuyo-tongmong” nii ka cucungtang na Menten-renpang. Knkawas 1958 betaq 1960, riqan Wu ni-wun cyangcun miriq Wunu pheyu “kamco cunghu”. Knkawas 1960 betaq 1962, Menten-renpangtang (pnryuxan ngayan “fanFasisu-zenming cuyo-tongmong”) na Wunu ka wada mbeyax senci ma cucung.

Knkawas 1962 betaq 1974, Uniwun wada mangal cungcen, laxan na renpang-cenfa, pheyu “Menten-renpang koming-weyenhwe”, lixun na mingsen-cutu, prading qqlahang supi ka tucay-cungcu. Knkawas 1964 idas 5, lixan na pila 50 ma pila 100. Knkawas 1967 idas 6, Menten lmiwaq smipaq Telu. Knkawas 1974 betaq knkawas 1988, Uniwun pgkela sinsenfa, singceng-tanwe ka Zwokaypang, Cinpang, Kocinpang, Korunpang, Kaye/Korunnipang, Mongpang ma Hwepang. Ngalan n aka lukus na supi ka Uniwun cyangcyun nii ma, heya naq mosa tloongan cusi na “Menten sohwe-cuyi kangring-tang”, pryuxan mesa “Menten-renpang sohwe-cuyi konghokwo” ka “Menten-renpang koming-weyenhwe”, pryuxan mesa “Menten-renpang sohwe-cuyi konghokwo” ka “Menten-renpang”, kika yitang-cwancung di ma, pooda kesun mentensu sohwecuyi.

Knkawas 1988 ka mhedu 8888 mingcu-yungtong, meniq bukuy ka Niwun nii di, Sumyaw cyangcyun ka rmirih di, pryuxun na mesa “Menten-mingcu twance-tang” ka “Menten sohwe-mingcu kanringtang”, cucungtang na de pryuxan mesa “Menten mingcu-twancetang”, pheyu “Menten renpang hwehu-fari ma cusi-weyenhwe” asi ba ka yitang-cwancung. Knkawas 1989 idas 6 ali 18, ngayan na ego ka “Menten” mesa “Burma” we, ada spriux mesa “Myanmar” na Menten rengpang cyuncenghu. knkawas 1989 idas 6 ali 18, ngayan na ego ka “Menten” mesa “Burma” we, wada spriux mesa “Myanmar” na Menten rengpang cyuncenghu. Knkawas 1992, Tanzwe cyangcuyun ka smriyux Sumyaw cyangcuyun mangal cyuncung-tacen, lmutuc naq yitang-cwanceng dungan. Knkawas 1997, Tangzwe cyancuyun we pryuxan na mesa “Menten renpang hoping ma hwacan weyenhwe” ka “Menten renpang hwehu-fari ma cusi-weyenhwe”, ma, lmutuc naq yitang cwancugn dungan. Knkawas ciida we, wada mhuqil ka Sumyaw cyangcucun, msputing ka bnyaxan na Uniwun di. knkawas 2002: wada mhuqil nleban ka Uniwun nii.

Knkawas 2005 idas 11 ali 7, anu canre-suwe daha, seyhu Menten nii de, wada na stheruy Nepitu ka sotu daha Yangkwang. Knkawas 2007 cceka idas 8 we, pstotuy knkawas 2007 Menten fan-cyuncunghu suwe ka Yangkwang, nii ge suwe paru na riyung pnyahan 20 knkawas, yaani wada 10man sseediq ka mnosa. Pusu na han we kanyi mkere bbrigan abura, sbukuy na de wada mpesa mingcu ma fan-cunghu suwe yosing di, betaq idas 9 ali 26 de meyah miriq ka cyunzun-cenghu di, ma, niqan ka seediq wada huqil. Knkawas 2008 idas 2 ali 9, paha kari ka cyunzun-cenghu, iads 5 di we kongming-topyaw ma pooda sin-senfa mesa, ma, knkawas 2010 de pdaun mingcu-senci ma pheyu sin-cenghu. Knkawas 2008 idas 5 ali 3, sbhuran bgihur mtbeyax riyung kesun Narcisu ka Yangkwang mcpecuk rahur seediq, maha 13wan hei seediq wada na ngalan. Knkawas 2010 idas 10 ali 21, paha faring ka Menten kwocya-hoping ma facan-weyenfe, pradung dmoi sinsefa ma, psdungus sin-kwoci daka sin-kwohwe, ani si ini pryuxi ka kwoko daha. Ngayan alang daha spriyux mesa Menten renpang-konghoko.

Knkawas 2011 idas 3 ali 24, 21su 55fun(UTC+8): Mrunu beyax 6.9 ka daya narac nMenten, 8km ka kntruma pnyahan na. Knkawas 2011 idas 3 ali 30, Tungsung mgcongtong Menten, malix kaTazwe di. Knkawas 2012 idas 4 ali 1: Paha kari ka Menten-rengpang senci-weyenhwe, 45 hei kana pusen yihwe-yisi na we, 43 ka wada ngalan cenkwo-ningcu-renmong, cusi na cenkwo-ningcu-renmong Wongsan-suci we wada mangal zunmingyen-yiyen. Knkawas 2013 idas 5 ali 2, Menten cucungtang ka kongfatang pgkela kari mesa, wada malix tang-cusi daha ka Tungsung congtong di, zunmingyen U-zuweman ka lmutuc tangcusi na kongfatang. Knkawas 2015 idas 11 ali 8, mngaya moda tasen pnyahan 25 knkawas nii. Spegun patis bnyaqan daha we, dndulan nWongsan-suci ka wada mangal, msputing hini ka qlhangan 54 knkawas ka cyun-cenghu di, ma, cucung 5 knkawas ka kongfatang. Bobo na, cenmingmong daka cyunfan we spooda daha senfa ka pheyu seyhu daha, Wongsan we kwou-cuceng.

Cngc ni Cyuns (政治與軍事)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Congtongcu saya kaMenten nii, congtong ga domi sincungcen ka mpdudul na. 5 knkawas ka ttloongan na, daha yihwe nMenten ka psgao. Bobo ka tiarcu sucetacan ma rungcan ciida we, knkawas 1962 betaq knkawas 1988 han we, sohwecuti-kanringtang nNiwun ka dnudul Menten nii, ma, dmoi yitang-cwanceng ma cyunsu-tucay.

Knkawas 1990 idas 12, pnsgao taypyaw nzunming-yihwe ka pheyu Menten renpang-kwocya renhocenghu, dungus na we mpquri pheyu mingcu-cutu dungan. Ryowang-cunghu ka cunghu daha nii, Wongsan-wun ka pdudul na. bale ba we, uka bale ka cenri na Menten renpang-kwocya renhocenghu nii, ma, ga malan mesa fefa-cucu na Menten cyun-cunghu duri.

Berah na knkawas 2011 idas 2, mpdudul nMenten cyun-cunghu we Tanzwe ma, heya naq ka cusi na duri, heya ka niqan cecocen, kana cenri na ptloong ma malix pucang ma, smnetur kwoci-cengcu nMeten.

Knkawas 2004 idas 10 ali 19, rmiyux Cinnyo ka Sowun tloong tluungan Menten congri, Sowun nii ka snhiyun na Tanzwe. Knkawas 2007 idas 5, ado mnarux ka Sowun ma, mosa psapuh Sincyapo(wada mhuqil idas 10 ali 12), Tensung ka ptloongan congri(heya ka congtong nMenten bobo na) di. Menten nii peni, wano wesungpu, cyatipu, rawkongpu ma cingci-facangpu di we, ga qlhangan cyuntwe-kwanye kana.

Cenkwo-mingcu remong ma sancu-mingcu remong ka cungtang nMenten. Niqan duma cungtang ka kmdakar sawsu-mingcu duri. irih so na supi ka Menten-mingcu twance-tang, ga ssbaang Menten-renpang ma kongfa-sehwe.

Knkawas 1988, mosa hmetrr kangyi-hotong seediq ini dehuk qmita cingci-pucen ma cengcu-pohay ka Mentencyun. Knkawas 1988 idas 8 ali 8, cmebu seediq suwe-yosing ka supi Menten, 8888 mingcu-yuntong kesun daha ka ndaan nii. Kangyi-hotong n1988 nii we, irih so ga mnama smeelu ddaan zunming-yihwe senci, ani si uxe kiya mesa seyhu. 30 knkawas mngaya senci ka Menten nii we, cenkwo-mingcu renmong dndulan na Wongsansuci ka wada mbeyax, 60% ka nngalan daha kipu ma, hmrinas 80% ka kwohwe-siwe na. ani si, mhedu senci de nzwncing 6 knkawas ka Wongsansuci, mneegu mosa peeluk ma zwancing daha dungan.

Ado cmikul mingcu ka Wongsansuci nii ma stdahu seediq laalng nuinu, knkawas 1991 de wada mangal Noper-hopingcyang, ani si mnkdalax senci knkawas 1990 dige, mneegu zwancing na cyun-cenghu ma, ini laxi rmuyuk qlhangan na cyun-cenghu. Ani rngagan renhokwo misucang Kohwe‧Annan ka Tanzwe, ma, meyah ka yari pneeyah tongnanya kwocya sehwe we, knkawas 2006 idas 5 ali 27 dungan ge, wada na snqdisan zwancing kingal knkawas nana. Ani ini stqita cunghu nii kana kwoci sohwe ge, paha kari dheya ge cenri na kwocya-faan knkawas 1975 ka nii mesa. Pntasan na faan kiya we, niqan cenri meluk ani ima ka cunghu mesa. Wunti na Menten nii we, mngaya prngagan renhokwo-anrihwe ge, knkawas 2005 idas 12 ka gecengsu-hweyi. Naqah bale kuxul na Tongnanya kwocya-sehwe, kika gmheyu Tongnanya kwocya-sehwe nepu-kwohwe Menten hosin-syawcuhweti ma, mrengo mesa uka mingcu ka Menten mesa.

Mincu-Kayke(民主改革)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Knkawas 2010 idas 10 ali 21, paha faring ka Menten kwocya-hoping facan-weyenhwe, bale ba dmoi “Menten renpang-konghokwo senfa” ka Menten di ma, , pgdehu sinkwoci ma sinkwohwe daha, ini kpriyux ka kwoko daha.

Knlawas 2010 idas 11 ali 7, muyu sinsefa ka Menten ma, moda texal totangcu cenkwo-tasen, 37 kana cengtang cancya tasen. Psgao yihwe taypyaw na kkrenpang, kksung ma kkpang, renpang-yihwe ge sangyen mingcuyen(224 tloongan) ma syayen zunmingyen(440 tluungan), dheya ka mpheyu congtong, hucongtong, smmalu sincenghu. Bobo na de, ceri na cyu-ncunghu saya dige biqun na sincunghu. Ado ini casen ka Wongsansuci ma, egu riyung kari alang daha ma kana laalang ucuicil, ye ba wada upi mesa. Hiti na de, wada mangal 259 tluungan zunmingyen ma, 129 tluungan mingcuyen ka renpang kongfatang, dheya ka tiyi-tatang.

Knkawas 2011 idas 2 ali 4, Menten kwohwe we, Tengsung na renpang-kongfatang ka ngalan daha Menten congtong. Idas 3 ali 30, mrengo ka kingal kwanyen na Menten, wada asi alix ali ciida ka mdudul na cyuncunghu ka Tanzuwe daka Myaway mesa, paha kari mesa ptlaxi ka kwocya-hoping facanweyehwe di mesa(cyunzun cunghu), bqani sncunghu ka cengcen mesa. Idas 4 ali 4, paha kari bale ka sehu Menten, qmnlahang 20 knkawas ka Tanzuwe we, wada malix mdudul supi di mesa. Mesa ka seediq mqbahang kari, ga mqeya sassing nTanzuwe ka sapah qqpahan sehu na mesa; meniq ka dhunsicya we mesa hii, ado snhiyun riyung nTanzuwe ka Tungsung, kika anq 78 ka knkawas nTnxuwe ge, mpdudul bukuy na dungan mesa.

Mesa ka Tokwo-cusung, mbeyax ba hmetur wanru Menten ka cuuxan, phyegan ka sincunghu nii de kmbeyax pqita kayming-singsyan daha, kika knkawas 2011 idas 10 ali 17 de paha kari, rwahan na Facebook, Twitter, BBC, Youtube, dunii ka mprengo qnnaqah kari wangcan cyuncenghu cuuxan, stqita na wangru cuyo-sutat ka Menten saya di mesa.

Knkawas 2012 idas 4, mdudul fantwepay ka Wongsansuci we, mangal kohwesyayen yiyen na Menten, idas 5 ali 2 mosa tloong tluungan na.

Knkawas 2012 idas 8 ali 20, sinsipu na Menten cunghu we paha kari kwanhwan-wangcan dah, peeyah ali saya di ge, lixun kan ka sungca-cutu na cupan-pumun. Knkawas 2012 idas 9 ali 17, paha kari ka Menten-cunghu, mpraguh 514 hei seediq nleban dungan mesa, niqan kaalang icil ma cungcu-hwan. Knkawas 2015 idas 11 ali 8, moda yihwe senci. Pyugan Menten-renpang senci-weyenhwe, idas 11 ali 3 ka kklaun bntaqan kipu, dndulan na Wongsansuci(Aung San Suu Kyi) ka “cenkwo-mingcu-renmong” wada mangal 390 tloongan, thrinas mddeka(664 tloongan kana) nngalan daha, dheya ka niqan kongcucen daha renpang-yihwe na Menten, knkawas 2016 dige msuupu pgheyu cunghu ka cemingmong daka cyunhwang.

Cingci (經濟)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Noye ka lekuh na ba Menten nii, maha 780 meyen ka nngalan zunming daha we, hmrinas 60% ka noye-zunko, niqan paye, migi, sibus ka pnhgalang daha. Bbuyu daha lmiqu we dehuk 50% ka nbungan na dheran, lmiqu daha we niqan qhuni saadux ma yomu. Kongye daha we niqan mgilang paye, gmeyu qhuni, kmari suyo, smmalu kikay tiku hari ma kwangcan. Kwangcan daha we niqan si, u, sin, ryi, suyo, kangyi ma yisu, paru ba ngayan ka hong-pawsu daka fecwe daha.

Dnhekan na cingci congti-sweping ka pnrdingan 21 suci Menten nii we, ini krana egu bobo tiarcu-secetacan, rmabang wada meerih daka berah na arcu-tacan. Pseengun ka snpegan na kesun cenwe ge, knkawas 1936 ka sungcan-conhcu(GDP) na Menten nii we dehuk 121.97yi meyyen di(1570.8 ka seediq na ciida), 776 meyyen ka nngalan na kkingal seediq daha, snpegan na knkawas 2004 idas 11 dige, sungcan-congcu na kkingal seediq Menten nii de 356 meyyen bale,maha rmabang tikuh ka nan-sozu na kkingal seediq, mstheya berah arcu-tacan 776 meyyen ka zuncin-nensozu daha. Kika maha ta klaun ga tingtun uxe de ga tawtwe ka cinci na Menten.

Knkawas 2011, Tebgsung ka congtong, moda cingci-kayko kana ka Menten, , pkglhangun na ka tocu-cengco, kayko-sweri ma fari-cutu, tocucin-o mneyah nganguc we, peeyah 300wan meyyen na knkawas 2010 ma, mkala 20yi meyyen na knkawas 2011, dehuk 667:1 ka piri na. knpriyux ka hopi-cungco na ma, mkala 25% ka pila Menten, cingci cungcanri na knkawas 2011 we 8.8%, nan-sungcang congcu na kkingal koming we mnkala dehuk 1300 meyyen.

Paru riyung ga na tocu quri cicu-censo ka seyhu Menten, 580yi meyyen ka wada na sliqun smmalu Tuwa cingci-toci, mpsuupu daka sunswekang, maha 10,000 cya hari knpruwan na, seyhu Menten nii sya we, mpddayo daka Taykwo, mpsmalu sweri-fatencang, suhwacang ma renyocang bobo na, ma, Congkwo, Nanhan ma Ingtu we niqan ba pnsmyahan daha towcu. Smtangan mpcingci-congsin Tongnanya betaq Ingtuyan tici ka seyhu nMenten nii.

Tiri (地理)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Ga meniq tgdaya ggqiyan hido Tongnanya ka Menten renpang-konghokwo nii, quri hhreyan hido we, ga mssiyo Congkwo, Ryawkwo ma Taykwo, quri ggqiyan hido ge msuayu Ingtu daka Mongcyara. Quri tghunac ggqiyan hido we ga msdaling Mongcyara-wan, rcilung Antaman ka hunac na. 676,578km² ka menci na, heya ka rmabang ba paru alang Tongnanya-taru. Ga tlbuwan ddgiyaq ka teru muxi na Menten nii, quri ggqiyan hido we Zwokay-sanmay, quri daya we Simaraya-san, hongtwan-sanmay, quri hhreyan hido ma tghunac hhreyan hido na we, Sanpang-kawyen daka Tanasaring-sanmay. Ckceka na we breenux. Dgiyaq Kaycyapo ga meniq Simaraya-san daya na we, 5887m ka haypa na, tgknbrawan ba Menten ma, tgknbrawan ba Tongnanya duri.

Yirowati-cyang, Cintun-cyang, Sarwun-cyang ma Sitangho dnii ka yayung ngngalun daha qsiya. Menaq ka Yirowati-cyang ge yayung pneeyah Sicang ringmaw nCongkwo, mquri hunac moda qluli cceka dheran Menten, ma, wada qluli dehuk Anmanta-hay. Seediq Menten we ga meniq Yirowati-cyang hari kana, yayung nii ka kdkarun daha riyung. Mttilux ma sbhuran ka karac hini. Hoku-pingyen na we thbehuk rbagan ma egu quyux, quri llmiqu daha we mddengu hari.

Tising(地形)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Niqan Nacyara-sanmay ma Arakan-sanmay ka quri ggqiyan hido na Menten, quri hhreyan na hido we Hwepang-kawyen, ckceka na we Yirowaticyang-pingyen, hunac na we lmiqu Tnnasaring.

Ciho(氣候)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Ga meniq quri sbhuran bgihur nanya ka Menten, karac na we mttilux ma sbgihur, idas 3 betaq idas 5 we rbagan, Idas 6 betaq idas 10 we ali qqyuxan, idas 11 betaq so kawas idas 2 we ali muuxux; egu quyux ka lmiqu na ma, dehuk 3000mm ma betaq 5000mm ka qnyuxan na, so mddengu ka dheran na ckceka we, 500mm betaq 1000mm ka qnyuxan na.

Rbagan, so breenux ayu kkyayung na we, uka na nklaan ddgiyaq daya na ma, peeyah ayu narac hunac tmalang quri daya ka bgihur, mttilux bale.

Hei seediq ma mingcu(人口和民族)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Yaani maha 5000wan ka hei seediq nMenten, 68% ka Mencu. Sawsu-mingcu na we 9% ka Hwecu, 7% ka Koruncu, 3.5% ka Zwokaycu, 2.5% ka Telu, 2% ka Mongcu, 1.5% ka Kocincu, 0.75% ka Koyecu ma, 4.5% ka duma yencumingcu. Dungan we niqan Ingtuzun ma seediq tnheruy kndalax Mongcyara(1.25%). Ani si, ani saya dungan we ini na kesa seediq Menten ka Menten hwazun(ini spegi ka Kwokan hwazun), seediq Ingtu, seediq Mongcyara ma seediq Rosingya(seediq pnqiling ka smtama Isuran-cyaw), dheya nii ka fating sawsu-mingcu(knkawas 2017 de ini na kesa seesiq Menten ka seediq Rosing(seediq Moncyara ka dheya).

Kari (語言)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kwanfan-yiyen na we kari Menten(kari nMencu), dmoi naq kari daha ka sawsu-mingcu alang nii. Kari Telu we hwezun ka ga dmoi, quri daya ka alang sawsu-mingcu nMenten nii we ga dmoi duri. mkela ego ka seediq naq mnuuyas, quri ggqiyan hido hii we ga dmoi kari Mongcyara(seediq rosingya). Ado cyun-cunghu Menten nii we taMencu-cuti ka bnsyaqan na smparu qmita, so quri alang icil de ini na prngagi kari daha nanaq. Ini qkaras ka duma mingcu daha. Kika kndudul uka hari ka duma kari daha di. ani naq kesun qlhangan taIng-tikwo ka Menten nii we, ini kmalu ka cyawyi-sosu na, ini rengo ego ka alang daha, so hari kingal naq seediq cumingti ka dheya.

Congcyaw(宗教)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Snhei sancopu Focyaw 89% ka seedqiq Menten, 5% ka snhei pusu snhiyan rudan daha cbeyo, duma de snhei Hancwan-Focyaw, Isurancyaw, Citusincyaw, Tencucyaw, Intucyaw dnii. Paru riyung beyax na ka Focya meniq Menten, ga meniq daya Menten ka sawsu-mingcu snhei Citu-congcyaw(dKoruncu ga meniq narac tghunac), thteran congyan-cunghu nMenten cbeyo han, hndure hari de ado kndudul mingcu ka Menten ma, so ka anaq ini snhei Focya duri de niqan knlawa daha duri di, ani si Israncyaw we, ga knhekun miriq na quri seyhu nMenten ma curyo-Focya-sohwe ka dheya, rmabang baka Rosingzun snhei Israncyaw, uka kongming-cen ma ririh so uka zuncen.

Singcung-cihwa(行政區劃)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

So nii ka ga qlhangan Menten: 7 sung, 7 pang ma kingal renpang-toci. 7 sung nii ge seediq Mencu ka egu bale, 7 pang nii we sawsu-mingcu tndheran ka seediq na.

地圖 No. 行政區 英文名稱 緬文名稱 首府 面積 (km²) 人口 鎮區數
MyanmarNumbered.png
1 伊洛瓦底省 Irowatisung Ayeyarwady Region ဧရာဝတီ 勃生 35 138 7,330,200 26
2 勃固省 Pokosung Bago Region ပဲခူး 勃固 39 404 5,581,300 28
3 馬圭省 Macusung Magway Region မကွေး 馬圭 44 820 4,760,100 25
4 曼德勒省 Mantorosung Mandalay Region မန္တလေး 曼德勒 37 024 6,727,900 31
5 實皆省 Sucesung Sagaing Region စစ်ကိုင်း 實皆 94 625 5,663,200 37
6 德林達依省 Toringtayi-sung Tanintharyi Region တနင်္သာရီ 土瓦 43 343 1,347,700 10
7 仰光省 Yangkwangsung Yangon Region ရန်ကုန် 仰光 10 171 5,836,200 45
8 欽邦 Cinpang Chin State ချင်း 哈卡 36 019 541,900 9
9 克欽邦 Kocinpang Kachin State ကချင် 密支那 89 041 1,327,700 18
10 克耶邦 Koyepang Kayah State ကယား 壘固 11 733 247,300 7
11 克倫邦 Korunpang Kayin State ကရင် 帕安 30 383 1,553,100 7
12 孟邦 Mongpang Mon State မွန် 毛淡棉 12 297 2,470,400 10
13 若開邦 Zwokaypang Rakhine State ရခိုင် 實兌 36 778 3,004,700 17
14 撣邦 Sanpang Shan State ရှမ်း 東枝 155 801 8,461,500 54
- 內比都聯邦區 Nepitu-renpangci Naypyitaw နေပြည်တော်

Waycyaw(外交)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Ndaan cencya nMenten

Pnuggaluk alang ssiyo nMenten, qtai ga spatis: pnuglban na Cong-Men, pnuglban na Ingtu-Menten, pnuglban na Mongcyarakwo-Menten, pnuglban na Sincyapo-Menten.

Mawyi kwansi(經貿關係)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Knesa na knkawas 2012 cai nDame we, 95yi meyyen ka cuko cong-o na Menten renpang-konghokwo mesa, cuko hwoping na we niqan pincong-fecwe-hoyi, qqhuni, pnhgalang, qcurux, lukus dnii. Congkwo ka tg3 paru ka cuko hwopan-kwo na, maha 14.2% hari ncuko na. Knesa na knkawas 2012 cai nDame we, 55yi meyyen ka ciko cong-o na Menten mesa, cinko hwoping na we niqan suyo, sucyaw, cico, cici, sweni, cinsu, supin, tencupin dnii. Congkwo ka tgkingal paru ka cinko hwopan-kwo na, maha 37% hari ncinko na.

Cyawyi(教育)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kana seediq nMenten we 94.75% ka mkela qmita patis. Cyawyi daha we niqan secen-cyawyi, cicu-cyawyi ma kawtun-cyawyi. Saya 40876 ka gako na cicu-cyawyi-sesyaw na, tase ma seyen we 108,suhwan-seyen na we 63, pusutase ma seyen we 22, sehu daha niqan ngayan we Yangkwang tase, Mantoro tase dnii.

Wunhwa(文化)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Spruun riyung qmita seediq ka sungcya meniq Menten; siyen-cen san-suci de mosa dehuk Menten ka Sangcopu focyaw di, siyen suyi-suci de kiya ka snhiyun bale seediq Menten ma betaq saya.

Kari nMenten we hancang-yisi ka pnswayan cangmen-yicu kesun menyicu; seediq pqeepah kana hari ka seediq daha; gaya daha cbeyo, ani naq so snhiyan daha, wunse ma cungcu-cutu dnii peni, egu bale pnyugan gaya Ingtu. Klaan bale we Pukan-wangcaw, pnheyu suyi-suci, Pukan ka sotu na. smalu singcung-cucu, smalu fari, malu bale ka gnqiran ma njyuga daha; marah naq patis daha pritux Pariwun ma Fanwun, kiya ka spatis daha ptpatis daha. Ppheyu daha fota we “cyosu-cikan-fota” ka tayptaw na.

Cezu(節日)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Idas kingal ali 4 we turi cinenzu.

Idas 2 ali 12 we renpang cinenzu.

Idas 3 ali 2 we nongmingce.

Idas 3 ali 10 we kanhanci.

Idas 3 ali 27 we kazu sungrizu.

Idas 4 ali 13 we betaq Idas 4 ali 16 we poswece.

Idas 4 ali 17 we sinneng.

Idas 5 ali 1 we rawtongce.

Idas 7 ali 19 we resuzu.

Idas 11 ali 26 we tentungce.

Idas 12 ali 25 we sungtace.

Menten ingsu(飲食)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Mohinga ma yitang-mihun nii we, kiya gad aha kesun kwocay na Menten. Egu pnhmaan beras paye ka Menten, mekan beras paye ka pusu daha uuqun. Ido daha mgrebu we ware begu qcurux, ware yecu, ido rumu yecu, ware tleetu, bihun tleetu ma ido dhequy, yecu, lmlamu hlama snlmeyan sato bhege.

Mtlehe mgrebu mimah ocya ka seediq Menten. Egu ka sseediq mosa mimah nayca cakwan ma, mekan pawcu, yotyaw ma yowping, smkuxul mimah begu qcurux knyapan, ido rumu gnmaxan hei bibi dnii......

Ini seeliq ppuqun daha ka seediq Menten. Kuxul daha ka dmamac yisysa-cyang, ucik, beluh hnanguc ma begu sama qnmasan de mekan ido. Asi ka niqan abura, mngihur, melu sknexan, sen, mtbasi, mremun.

Hhpure daha we tngqerun, muduh, tnsiyus, ryangpan. Tqrelun ma nduhan we leexan sskuwan, ani naq ini stlexi ka ryangpan ma, pseelih kntlexan. Msuayus rcilung paru ka Menten ma egu yyayung, egu bale ka qcurux ma bolung, leexan ramus. Egu riyung ppuqun snlmeyan qcurux bolung ka Menten. Kuxul daha qmamas so msbasi ka lexi ma, spuun daha tmsiyus so ssama ma so ssiyang, cheya riyung puqun.

Cusu(註釋)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Yihwecu senci singcung-congtong kongho-kwocya ka Menten, congtong ka niqan beyax bale.

Pnyahan pnatas(參考資料)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

  • CIA
  • 外交部
  • List of current heads of state and government
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