France

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Flag of France -Kwoci(法國國旗)
File:Armoiries de la République Française.svg-Kwohwey(國徽)
File:EU-France.svg-Ida nkiya nniqan lnglingay(自然地理位置)

France(法國)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Gaga kska Owcow ka France, 46 00 N, 2 00 E ka gaga na nniqan.

Kana ka knlbangan na o 551,500 sq km(hangan na o Tg43)(knlbanga dxgal o 549,970 sq km, knlbangan qsiya o 1,530 sq km).

Kana ka sejiqun o niqan 66,836,154 hiyi.

Gaga Paris ka pusu alang paru, jiyax 14 idas 7 ka jiyax skrayan klwaan.

Manu ka dxgal France ga wada sugan 52.70% ka dxgal qpahan, 29.20% ka dxgal bbuyu, rahuq dxgal do niqan 18.10% na.

Bukung klwaan ta sayang o kiya ka François Hollande, pnaah hngkawas2012 idas 5 jiyax 15pnrajing kmlawa klwaan.

cinkhulan sa knita’ sa brbiru’

Nniqan lnlingay (地理)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Hnyuwan lnlingay kana tndxral qnlhangan 領土地形[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Wa mniq Oco ka dxral Hwako u ngalan dha Tndxral Hwako, wa mniq Oco taru tuiril tuiyax 40° dhuq 51°N, 6°W dhuq 10°E, ya bay hntaring 1000 kongri pcbalay tuhunac tudaya tunarac tuiril, so bay rokaku ka hnyuwan tndxral dha, mkmuxultay ka tnkarac dha.

Tndxral Hwako tudaya u dhuq Peyhay, tuiril daya u dhuq Ingciri haysya, tuiril u dhuq Tasiyang, tuhunac u dhuq Ticonghay, kiya mi msqapah tndxral tunarac daya ka Pirisu mi Rusnpaw, tunarac ka Doyicu mi Jweysu, tunarac hunac ka Itari mi Moroko, kiya mi tuiril hunac ka Sipanya mi Antawar.

Ayus tuhunac mi tunarac Hwako ka dudux tudu dwiyaq pa niqan tudu dwiyaq Pirinyosu, tudu dwiyaq Aarpeysu mi dwiyaq Curo, yayung u niqan yayung Rayin. Mniq kcka Ticonghay u, niqan Kosicyataw mi kari bay mkngahu ucilung cyutaw.

Mniq kana nniqan jeynseykay pa kari bay hayway sng mi tndxral nganguc icil ka Hwako, kana tndxral dniyi u singcng cyuhwa mi kwansya pnluban qqlahang pa ini nanaq pntna duma, so niyi ka nniqan dha:

  • Tuhunac Meyco: nHwako Kayyana.
  • Tasiyang: Sngpiyey mi Mikorong mi Aatiryeysu cyutaw ka Kwatiropu, Matingniko, Sngmating mi Sngbasomi.
  • Tapingyang: Hwasu Porinisiya, Sinkoritoniya, Walis mi Hutuna mi Koripotun taw.
  • Intuyang: Ryoniwang, Hwasu Intuyang cutaw, Koroco cyuntaw, Kayarkayrang cyuntaw, SngPoro taw mi Amusutotan taw.
  • Nancico: Atayriti (niqan pnrngawan kari), kcka niya u, msqapah Hwasu Kayyana mi Pasi mi Surinan ka tndxral dha, tndxral Hwasu Sngmating mi Hosu Sngmating u msqapah.

Kndkilan karac (氣候生態)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Spuda Bnkuwan kluwanan karac Kopn, nniqan knbrnux knkana tndxral Hwako pa to bay so nHayyang sing ka kkarac, muxul ka misan mi mtltu ka rbawan, tnkawas u niqan quyux, nniqan bbrnux mi cyoring ka tuhunac, nTiconghaysu ka kkarac,

kndnguwan ka rbawan mi qmuyux ka misan.

Pdkanan ka kntlxan iidas: Idas 1 tuiril mi tuhunac u ya bay 4-7°C, tunarac mi tudaya u ya bay 1-3°C; idas 7 tudaya mi tuiril u ya bay 16-18°C, tuhunac mi tunarac pa ya bay 21-24°C.

Pndkanan ka qsiyaq qnyuxan kngkawas pa 600-800 kongri, lmiqu u dhuq hmrinas 1500 kngri. Bnkuwan

kluwan kkarac u so bntasan trahuc niyi:[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

  • Mkngahu ucilung Hwako pa to bay kkarac mnHayyangsing kana, kiya mi tuiril pa pnrdingan tudaya u Hwarantosusu, dhuq tuhunac Pasuko ka tura bay nniqan mkngahu ucilung; mquri nniqan tuhunac pa alaw weytu kiya ka krinah muxul; mquri tuiril daya daw mtltu balay tuhunac kiya, pndkanan mbiyax ka sbhuran niya.
  • Mquri nniqan ruma u kkarac mnHayyangsing kiya na, binaw psnakan quri nniqan mkngahu ucilung kiya, ngalan dha “Panhayyangsing kkarac” . Mray so mniq Pari mi knkarac nniqan mkrbuq lmiqu u knpriyux balay, krpuhan sisan u ini hari quyux. Nniqan kkarac niyi ka nniqan kkarac mbiyax Hayyangsing mi nniqan kkarac Tarusing kwotu titay.
  • Tukcka mi nniqan tudaya brnux kkarac Hayyangsing mi nniqan mkrbuq Pari ka kkarac Hayyangsi ng mntna knpriyux, so kiya mncun dha splawa “tnkarac Pari” (parisien)
  • Nniqan tudaya mi tunarac pa mquri kkarac Tarusing, rbawan wa kntlxan balay mi ou bay quyux, misan u knskuy bay kndnguwan balay.
  • Nniqan mkngahu ucilung Ticonghay na tuhunac Hwako (Mray so dxral aayu hunac yayung Rona) kkarac mnTiconghay.
  • Ddwiyaq tudu Aarpeysu, ddwiyaq tudu Nyosu, ddwiyaq tudu Hoju, dwiyaq Curo mi nniqan tuckcka brnux baraw u mnlmiqu kkarac.
  • Tndxral quri nganguc Hwako pa to bay mnmtilux kkarac, tnkawas u mtilux bay mi sqquyux balay, Hwasu Kayyana u mtura balay mnJotaysing na Jotayyurin kkarac; kiya mi Sngpiyey mi Mikorong kiya mi Hwasu tuhunac mi tndxral naci ka mnhuciti kkarac, tnkawas knskuy mi kndnguwan.

Sngcng cyuhwa (行政區劃)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Tacyu ka ici singcngcyu Hwako(région),   kana qnlhangan pa niqan 18 Tacyu (kiya ka

knkana Kosicya singcngcyu), kcka niyi pa niqan 5 ka Hayway tacyu (DOM); cuxan han u niqan 21 ka kana balay tacyu tndxral, kngkawas 2014 mnuda meytaq hyo daw wada pspuwan duma ka tacyu mi mk13 ka tacyu tndxral da.

Psuwan ka tacyu pa niqan 101 ka sng dungan (department), spuda bnkuwan bnatas jiyi muda mku banggo, ddiyun mku banggo yocng (ddiyun mku banggo paya rulu uri).

Qnlhangan muda mmurux waya ka Hwako, ana manu bnatas brah way u ini angal pusu biyax kana.

Tacyu (kiya ka knkana Hayway tacyu) Sohu Knlbangan Knhbrawan sediq
Beyhing tunarac Sutoras 57,433 5,552,388
Yayung Awhuney-Rong-Aarpeys Riang 69,711 7,757,595
Pokngti-Hwaranci-Kangti Tijong 47,784 2,816,814
Puryeytani Reyen 27,208 3,273,343
Tukcka-Royaar mkeayu yayung Awarryang 39,151 2 570,546
Kosicya Ayakosyaw 8,680 320,208
Tubaraw Hwaransi Riar 31,813 5,973,098
Hwaransitaw Pari 12,012 11,959,807
Nomanti Ruang 29,906 3,568,476
Sinyakweytan Poarto 84,061 5,808,594
Awkositani Turus 72,724 5,626,858
Nniqan yayung Royaar Nanto 32,082 3,553,353
Purowangsu-Aarpeys-Mkngahu ucilung Weyran Masay 31,400 4,935,576
Kwatiropu Pasutoar 1,628 403,750
Kayyana Kayyun 83,534 239,450
Matingniko Hwaransipaw 1,128 386,486
Ryoniwang Sngtanni 2,511 844,994
Mayoto Mamucu 374 212,645

Seyji (政治)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Hwaransi konghoko u muda dmka pnwaya soto ka pmurux waya konghoko, bnsiyaq  balay muda pnsltudan mincu. Keyngpo Hwaransi tu5 konghoko pa pnuda meytaq hyo kana kongmin Hwako kngkawas 1958 idas 9 diyax 28 cida, smruwa psdhu dndulan qnlhangan Hwaransi tu5 konghoko. Peyyah cida mnuda smpusal snbarah ka keyngpo, wada bay pkrana pnluban qpringan seyhu mi gikay. Kana singcng cikwan pa niqan dha ka bukung nngalan kari, taxa ka soto konghoko, taxa ka congri.

Soto ka bukung yeynso qnlhangan Hwako, niqan biyax phiyu mi malax congri, dmudul kaygi neyko mi pkla biyax waya qnlhangan, kiya mi tubaraw bay nngalan kari butay uri, kndadax kana sediq qnlhangan muda umaw mi phiyu, mnuda mndha seyngkyo, hmrinas dmka sediq dmkuh ka phyuwan soto.

Bnkuwan diyax sqpah soto u mn7 kngkawas ka rading han, kngkawas 2000 idas 9 diyax 24 cida, mnuda cweymin kongto

ka Hwako mi, babaw na cida daw wada kndadax mn7 kngkawas mi wada mlih mn5 kngkawas ka bnkuwan diyax sqpah soto da, kiya mi malu mndha phyuwan balay ka soto.

Soto ka dmudul kaygi neyko, pkla waya qnlhangan; soto ka tubaraw bay bukung turu klwanan butay. Kiya mi, spuda keyngpu tu16 qnay, smturung beyhing bay pnspngan cida, niqan biyax dmuwi beyhing bay biyax psbalay ddaun ka soto, mray so pkla kari mtmay cingci cwangtay ka qnlhangan mi so rmading kana qnlhangan tongyeynring, kiya mi niqan biyax ptalax kokomin gikay uri. Soto saya u Aymannyo Makohong, kiya ka Hwaransi konghoko tu25 pnhyuwan soto, peyyah kngkawas 2017 idas 5 diyax 14 ka pnsdhu.

Pusu bay luqi tunux seyhu Hwako ka congri. Kndadax pnspuwan kmnrinas dmka kokomin gikay tangpay (quri so ryeynmong) pnhiyu ka congri, kiya mi soto ka muda psdhu. Spuda tu8 qnay keyngpo Hwako, niqan biyax psdhu duma sediq neyko seyhu ka congri. Spuda tu20, 21 qnay keyngpo, quri so dndulan congri, seyhu ka pusu dmudul mi qmlahang cngco qnlhangan; dmudul kana qqpahun seyhu, pdudul muda waya qnlhangan; seyhu u mquri seykining gikay, kiya mi niqan bay nrunan na quri sbku uuda kaygi gikay.

Cuxan han pa soto mi congri u mnuda ini pntna cngtang han, spuda cngtang soto ka hmnrinas dmka kokomin inkay, soto ka muda psdhu congri daw kiya ka mntna cngtang ka congri da, soto ka pusu dmudul qnhlangan, congri ka seykining mku neyko.

Aytohwa Huyripu ka wada psdhun congri Hwako Aymannyo Makohong kngkawas 2017 idas 5 diyax 15 cida dhuq saya.

Waya qnhlangan (法律)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Pnwaya waya qnhlangan Hwako pa mnOru Hwasi, kiya ka mndhu bay waya qnlhangan, naqah muda smmalu waya qnlhangan ka hwakwan, wana nanaq malu spuda bntasan qnay waya muda pkla waya qnhlangan ka hwakwan (mniq so duma ringyu ka ou pnklanan suhwa mi muru so ndanan waya qnhlangan cbiyaw). Pusu bay waya qnlhangan Hwako pa muru “Hwako minhwatyeyn”. Spuda “Jncweyn syeynyeyn”, wana so smliq syakay ka nuda pa kiya ka htranan dha.

Waya qnhlangan tisi Hwako pa pnsnakan ddha pusu bay ringyu- suhwa mi konghwa. Tubrah u kiya ka minhwa mi singhwa, tubukuy u kiya ka singcnghwa mi keyngpo. Wana “Kongpaw na seyhu Hwaransi konghoko” ka pnusa patas u kiya ka niqan biyax waya qnhlangan na.

Waycyaw (外交)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Pnrdingan bay kayying pnhiyu ryeynhoko ka Hwako, kiya ka taxa Ryeynhoko anjeyng risuhuy cangjn risuko uri, niqan biyax na murux hyo hmtur. Hwako ka 8 takongyeyko cucu, Sucyey mawyi cucu, Taypingyang kongtongti, Kari Hwaransicyeyn koci cucu mi Intuyang ingkay balay bay ntuman niya, kiya u Cyaropihay qnlhangan ryeynmong ryeynsi ntuman na qnlhangan uri. Pusu bay pnluban ppwaluk kana koci ka Hwako, niqan jeynseykay tudha knbeyhing bay waycyaw wangru kaHwako, knou cuway ciko u msnul Amirika.

Hwako ka Cingci hocwo mi pkrana cucu, Ryeynhoko cyawkowen cucu, Koci singcing cucu, Koci turyang hngcyu mi nniqan congpu Kari Hwaransi cweyn koci cucu.

Mniq kngkawas 1778 cida muwaya bay qnlhangan tuhuy Amirika cyeyncyaw, kiya mi mniq kngkawas 1964 dungan u muwaya bay tuhuy Cyokoku cyeyncyaw ka sihwang knbeyhing qnlhangan.

Tna mniq kngkawas 1547 cida, kiya ka pnhiyu mnwaya bay jeynseykay waycyaw pumen ka Hwako, mniq kngkawas 1589 cida, 4 hiyi kowu tacn Hwako u wada mkseymong hwa ka qpahun, kiya taxa kcka na u waycyaw tacn.

Cyunsu (軍事)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Tubaraw bay bukung ucwang riryang Hwako u soto Hwako, kiya pnspuwan Rucyun Hwako, Haycyun Hwako, Kongcyun Hwako mi Keynpey qnhlangan. Kngkawas 2014 cida, kana bay ucwang riryang Hwako u ya bay niqan 22 knbkiyan cangpey heytay, tu24 bnkuwan jeynseykay. Niqan bsiyaq bay rikisi ka knkranan heytay Hwako, quri so rikisi Oco kiya mi knkana rikisi jeynseykay u mnou bay biyax runan niya, 509 oku pila Amirika ka dduwi dha hbangan heytay kngkawas 2015 ka Hwako, GDP dha u 2.3%, tu7 kana jeynseykay. Cangjnrisuko anjeyn risuhuy Ryeynhoko ka Hwako, pnspuwan tosyu cngyeynko Peyyey cucu uri, rngcan cida msupu qnlhangan Peyyey muda

kcka qnhlangan mi mquri nganguc qnlhangan ryeynho singtong.

Uxay wana Peyyo nanaq, mniq Ahuyrika, Congtong mi Paarkan pantaw ka mtbiyax bay mi muri tumal lnlamu murux uxay daw knou weyho singtong, muda qmpah pusu dmudul knttu uri. Kngkawas 1997 beytaq saya, ini balay uda lmwa mpheytay ka Hwako.

Keyjay (經濟)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Spuda GDP mku ka Hwako pa tu7 kana jeynseykay ka knbeyhing cingciti na, quri so biyax dha mari u tu10 kana jeynseykay. Hwako u mnoyeyn mi quri so Omong pskingal sucang ka dhiya, kngkawas 2002, oyeyn ka rmirih hwarang mi wada mpila ddiyun kcka qnlhangan mi seyhu.

Kngkawas 2015 qnniqan bay hbangan jeynseykay kcka 500 hangan u, niqan 31 ka ciyey Hwako, spuda bnkuwan matas Sucyey mawyi cucu, kngkawas 2009 cida, Hwako ka kana jeynseykay tu6 knbeyring qnlhangan smalu cngpin cuko mi tu4 qnlhangan cinko.

Kngkawas 2008 cida, wada mangal 1,180 oku pila Amirika kasi tocu ka waysang, tu3 bang mntmay qnhlangan Pnsliyan cingci hocwo mi kkranan, msnul Rusnpaw mi Amirika; mntna kngkawas cida Hwako ciyey mquri nganguc tocu u 2,200 oku pila Amirika, tu2 bang mntmay qnhlangan Pnsliyan cingci hocwo mi kkranan, msnul Amirika.

Quri so qnbliqan hbangan tnsapah pa, Hwako ka nniqan bay hbangan kana qnlhangan Oco (kiya ka tu4 qnbliqan kana jeynseykay). Niqan mndungus bay qnbliqan dha kndusan ka sediq Hwako, knou bay ka pnyasan dha mi bsiyaq knudus dha uri.

Knhbrawan hiyi sediq (人口)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Kngkawas 2016 idas 1 cida ya bay niqan 6,660 knbkiyan knhbrawan hiyi ka sediq Hwako, nasi ini spuwi ka tndxral nganguc mi nniqan nganguc u ya bay 6,450 knbkiyan hiyi sediq.

Tu20 knhbrawan kana jeynseykay ka Hwako, tu3 knhbrawan hiyi sediq kana Oco.

Knkrana knhbrawan quri so ikayhwa qnlhangan ka Hwako, so tukubeycu ka qnqhlangan Oco, knkrana putting laqi rabu mi ida nkiya mrana ryu u Hwako ka mrabang niya.

Kngkawas 2006 cida mntna bay Omong ka ida nkiya knkrana knhbrawan hiyi sediq, knkawas cida pa ida nkiya knkranan na u 30 knbkiyan hiyi sediq, kiya ka babaw na kngkawas 1973 mnhdu rabu caw u mrabang knkrana, kiya mi pnspuwan kana pntingan rabu ryu pa kndadax kngkawas 1994 cida 1.7 han u wada mkala dhuq 2.0 ka kngkawas 2010 da.

Kndadax kngkawas 2006 dhuq kngkawas 2011 ka knkrana ryu kngkawas knhbrawan hiyi sediq Hwako pa 0.6%, pntinga rabu ryu sediq tnhdilan icil ka pusu bay knkranan knhbrawan hiyi sediq, dhuq kngkawas 2010 cida, pntingan laqi rabu 27% ka tndxral Hwako pa qulung niqan taxa tama bubu ka mntuting qnlhangan icil, kiya mi niqan 24% ka tama bubu pntingan laqi rabu u qulung taxa ka uxay mntuting Oco mi mntuting qnlhangan icil.

Minjoku (民族)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Knhbaraw bay pusu rudan cbiyaw sediq Hwako pa sediq Kayarto (sediq Kawru), kiya mi niqan Rating (Roma) mi Juarman (Hwaranko) ka daran dha, splawa dha sediq Hwaransi, hmrinas kana sediq qnlhangan 90% ka knhbrawan hiyi dha. Kcka qnhlangan u niqan minjoku icil, kiya ka knkana sediq Yaarsas, sediq Pasuko, sediq Puryeytani, sediq Tayrongniya, sediq Kosicya, sediq Horayming mi sediq Ositan.

Spuda waya qnlhangan Hwako pa, takuymo muda smpu minjoku mi daran ka uuda u sdakar dha kiya. Pnwaya waya qnhlangan niyi u kndadax kngkawas 1789 takoming, mniq keyngpo kngkawas 1958 u wada sdhuwan balay dungan.

20 seyki prading u smturung knhbrawan bay sediq tnhdilan ka Hwako, so niyi ka syakay Hwako u wada kndudul mquri knou kluwanan hwa.

Wana iyax kndadax kngkawas 1921 dhuq kngkawas 1935 u, niqan 110 knbkiyan knhbrawan hiyi sediq tnhdilan ka Hwako; mniq 20 seyki 60 kngkwasan cida, mnccbu Aarciriya u wada dmudul ya bay 160 knbkiyan “qaqay qalux” (sediq mnniq Tudaya Ahuyrika lutuc Hwaransi) ka brinah miyah qnhlangan; kiya mi dduma sediq Sipanya, Putawya, Tudaya Ahuyrika mi Tuiril Ahuyrika pa snturung diyax niyi u miyah thdil Hwako uri. Cuku Mongtyeyn yeyncyoso kngkawas 2004 ka mnuda smpu tndxral Hwako u niqan 5,100 knbkiyan ka sediq llutuc Oco (85% knhbrawan hiyi sediq kana qnhlangan), 600 knbkiyan hiyi ka llutuc Tudaya Ahuyrika (10% knhbrawan hiyi sediq kana qnhlangan), 200 knbkiyan ka llutuc Ahuyrika (sediq qalux, 3.3% knhbrawan hiyi sediq kana qnhlangan) mi 100 knbkiyan ka llutuc Asia (1.7% knhbrawan hiyi sediq kana qnhlangan).

Kngkawas 2008 cida, Qnhlangan Hwako tongci mi cingci yeyncyoso mi Hwako jnkoswey yeyncyoso ka msupu muda kingal thnganan “Ndanan mi pnyahan” ka tyawca, pkla Hwako u ya bay niqan 500 knbkiyan hiyi sediq ka llutuc Itari, 300 dhuq 600 knbkiyan hiyi sediq ka sediq llutuc Tudaya Ahuyrika, 250 knbkiyan hiyi ka sediq llutuc Ahuyrika (sediq qalux) mi 20 knbkiyan ka sediq llutuc Tuarci. Mniq Hwako, hbaraw hari ka quri sediq llutuc Oco pa to bay sediq Sipanya, sediq Putawya, sediq Romu, sediq Poran, sediq Sira.

Kari (語言)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]

Spuda keyngpo Hwako tu2 qnay, ddiyun kari seyhu Hwako ka kari Hwaransi, mnRoman tnkari joku, knryuxan pneyyah kari Rating.

Kndadax kngkawas 1635 prading, Hwaransi sweysuyeyn u kiya ka pusu biyax knklanan kari hwaransi ciko, binaw uka biyax na phiyu waya. Uxay wana kari Hwaransi, niqan 77 kluwanan kari tnualang ka kcka Hwako, kcka niyi u niqan 8 kluwanan kari u wa psanak nanaq tndxral Hwako, 69 kluwanan kari ka psanak tndxral Hayway.

Seyhu Hwako u ini kdakar txtaxa sediq matas patas u dmuwi ana manu kluwan kari mi jiyi, binaw waya qnhlangan Hwako u pusa kari quri mniq sangyey mi nniqan qnpahan u kasi ka dmuwi kari Hwaransi.

Mniq qnhlangan u dmudul dmuwi kari Hwaransi, phiyu Kari Hwaransi cweyn koci cucu mi koci ciko uri ka seyhu Hwako, smatang pkrana hnyuwan kari Hwaransi mniq Oco mi knkana jeynseykay.

Spuda snpuwan u, ya bay niqan 2.2 oku knhbrawan sediq jeyseykay ka mkla rmngaw kari Hwaransi, kcka niyi u kiya kana ka pusu kari ddiyun dha mi tu2 kari ddiyun dha.

Pnyahan pnatas(參考資料)[smmalu patas | ida npatas sspgan ka smmalu patas]